Showing posts with label New York. Show all posts
Showing posts with label New York. Show all posts

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Instructional Video: Inserting K-Patents Generation 2.1 SAFE-DRIVE™ Process Refractometer PR-23-SD

This video is intended for individuals installing, commissioning, operating, and/ or servicing the K-Patents Safe-DriveTM Process Refractometer PR-23-SD, generation 2 model. The purpose of this video is to provide a quick guide for the above mentioned tasks in the form of K-Patents recommended best practices.

K-Patents SAFE-DRIVE™ design allows for safe and easy insertion and retraction of the sensor under full operating pressure without having to shut down the process.

Below the video is the document "Best Practices for the Safe-DriveTM Process Refractometer PR-23-SD Generation 2" for your convenience.

For more information, visit http://www.psi-team.com or call 800-223-1468.

VIDEO



DOCUMENT

Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Magnetic Flowmeters: Principles and Applications

Magnetic Flowmeter
Magnetic Flowmeter (Azbil)
Crucial aspects of process control include the ability to accurately determine qualities and quantities of materials. In terms of appraising and working with fluids (such as liquids, steam, and gases) the flowmeter is a staple tool, with the simple goal of expressing the delivery of a subject fluid in a quantified manner. Measurement of media flow velocity can be used, along with other conditions, to determine volumetric or mass flow. The magnetic flowmeter, also called a magmeter, is one of several technologies used to measure fluid flow.

In general, magnetic flowmeters are sturdy, reliable devices able to withstand hazardous environments while returning precise measurements to operators of a wide variety of processes. The magnetic flowmeter has no moving parts. The operational principle of the device is powered by Faraday's Law, a fundamental scientific understanding which states that a voltage will be induced across any conductor moving at a right angle through a magnetic field, with the voltage being proportional to the velocity of the conductor. The principle allows for an inherently hard-to-measure quality of a substance to be expressed via the magmeter. In a magmeter application, the meter produces the magnetic field referred to in Faraday's Law. The conductor is the fluid. The actual measurement of a magnetic flowmeter is the induced voltage corresponding to fluid velocity. This can be used to determine volumetric flow and mass flow when combined with other measurements.

The magnetic flowmeter technology is not impacted by temperature, pressure, or density of the subject fluid. It is however, necessary to fill the entire cross section of the pipe in order to derive useful volumetric flow measurements. Faraday's Law relies on conductivity, so the fluid being measured has to be electrically conductive. Many hydrocarbons are not sufficiently conductive for a flow measurement using this method, nor are gases.

Magmeters apply Faraday's law by using two charged magnetic coils; fluid passes through the magnetic field produced by the coils. A precise measurement of the voltage generated in the fluid will be proportional to fluid velocity. The relationship between voltage and flow is theoretically a linear expression, yet some outside factors may present barriers and complications in the interaction of the instrument with the subject fluid. These complications include a higher amount of voltage in the liquid being processed, and coupling issues between the signal circuit, power source, and/or connective leads of both an inductive and capacitive nature.

In addition to salient factors such as price, accuracy, ease of use, and the size-scale of the flowmeter in relation to the fluid system, there are multiple reasons why magmeters are the unit of choice for certain applications. They are resistant to corrosion, and can provide accurate measurement of dirty fluids ' making them suitable for wastewater measurement. As mentioned, there are no moving parts in a magmeter, keeping maintenance to a minimum. Power requirements are also low. Instruments are available in a wide range of configurations, sizes, and construction materials to accommodate various process installation requirements.

As with all process measurement instruments, proper selection, configuration, and installation are the real keys to a successful project. Share your flow measurement challenges of all types with a process measurement specialist, combining your process knowledge with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Understanding Guided Wave Radar Level Instruments

Guided Wave Radar (GWR) level transmitter
Guided Wave Radar (GWR)
level transmitter (Drexelbrook)
One of several technologies used for level measurement in process control is guided wave radar. A Guided Wave Radar (GWR) level transmitter combines time domain reflectometry (TDR), equivalent time sampling (ETS), and low power circuitry with a form factor that includes a wave guide extending into the contained media. TDR measures distance or level using pulses of electromagnetic energy. The pulse travels along the waveguide until it reaches the media surface and is reflected back to the unit. The speed of the pulse is known, so an accurate measure of the travel time for the signal can be processed into a distance measurement. Different media will produce a range of amplitude in the reflection, with a greater dielectric difference between air and target medium producing higher amplitude in the reflection. Industries, such as telephone, computer, and power transmission, have relied on TDR for years in order to detect and pinpoint breaks in wires or cables, making the technology more mature than it may appear by its limited timeline in level measurement applications.

ETS is used to measure the high speed, low power electromagnetic energy, and is typical when applying TDR to level measurement technology, where the signal travel distance and time are very short. The electromagnetic signals are captured by the ETS technology in nanoseconds, and are then reconstructed in the equivalent time of milliseconds. The radar scans the waveguide, collecting thousands of samples to be used in signal processing. Integrating both technologies into a single level transmitter yields an accurate and responsive instrument for process measurement.

GWR instrumentation is useful in the process control industry for its ability to measure levels in a quick, consistent way. GWR transmitters are contact radar level measurement tools, as opposed to pulsed non-contact radar transmitters that emit radar pulses through free air without a waveguide. Probes, inserted into the subject tank or vessel, serve as the waveguide for the pulsed signal. They guide the pulsed microwave vertically into the tank, providing a measure of immunity from disturbance by the tank and surrounding media. Guided wave radar technology differs from non-contact radar in a number of ways. The presence or absence of a probe is only one of them.

GWR level transmitters are used in process measurement applications throughout many industries, such as food and beverage. Tanks, pumps, and piping systems for both storage and transport can utilize GWR to continuously monitor levels. Other vessels, such as reduction, forming, mixing, heating, cooking, and cooling, can utilize GWR for similar reasons. Additionally, other stages of food and beverage manufacturing, such as centrifugation and decontamination, can be good fits for GWR technology. Guided wave radarís previous applicability in industries aside from liquid processing and implementation in a wide range of process settings show the flexibility and reliability of GWR technology.

Selecting the best level measurement technology for an application can be a challenge. Share your project requirements and concerns with a process instrumentation specialist, combining your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop effective solutions.

Friday, October 20, 2017

7 Reason to Choose Full Flanged, Full Port, Wafer Style Valves

Abstracted from an article by Robert Donnelly of Flo-Tite.
  1. Space Savings - Shorter in width than a standard flanged ball valve, the wafer-style ball valve
    Full Flanged, Full Port, Wafer Style Valve
    Flo-Tite Kompact Series Valve
    is ideal for skid systems or any application where space is an issue. Ideal for under tanks too.
  2. Lower Torques - With less torque than other con­ventional full-port valves, the wafer valve can be automated by smaller actuators with smaller universal mounting kits.
  3. Less Weight - The wafer valve weigh­s about 30% less than full-port flanged ball valves.
  4. One Piece Body - If steam jacketing is required, the jackets cost much less than two-piece bolt-on types. 
  5. Pocket-less Design - Many process control engineers will not use ball valves because of the dead space behind the valve ball. The pocket-less design of the wafer valve eliminates that concern.
  6. Easier to modify flanges to meet standards - When equipment made in Europe is sent to U.S. there is often a need to tran­sition from the DIN flange to an ANSI interface to install the equip­ment here. With the wafer valve, it is relatively easy to modify the flanges to mate.
  7. Tapped flanges - Adds to the ease of installation or maintenance as one side of the piping can be re­ moved while the valve is still under pressure.

For more information on Full Flanged, Full Port, Wafer Style Valves contact Piping Specialties, Inc by calling 800-223-1468 or visit http://www.psi-team.com.

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Mogas FlexStream: Rotary Control Technology for Severe Service Applications

Process plants have increased throughput causing operating pressures and flow rates to increase as well. Advanced production techniques demand better equipment and valve performance to handle these severe conditions. FlexStream rotary control technology is designed specifically for severe service conditions, to provide superior velocity control, variable characterization, exceptionally high rangeability, and precision modulation.

Mogas FlexStream
1) Diffusion element splits and aligns the flow.
2) The control element reduces the flow velocity.
Within a compact replaceable trim design, located downstream with a seat, FlexStream technology employs flow paths of different configurations to control flow and pressure drop. First the diffusion element splits and aligns the flow, then the control element reduces the flow velocity through a variable arrangement of torturous flow path. This allows precise pressure let down, and velocity control custom tailored to process conditions. These torturous flow paths consist of a series of right angle turns. Pressure is reduced by directing fluid flow through these right angles, which control kinetic energy and velocity. Pressure drop at each stage is evenly distributed, while the torturous path expands at each right angle to ensure velocities will not be increased. The larger the pressure drop, the more turns are required to control velocity.

For applications requiring high rangeability, ideal flow control is available by varying the combination of control area and open area, within the trim. The control area determines the amount of bore filled with multi-stage paths, and is used for higher pressure drop lower flow conditions. The open area determines the amount of unrestricted flow, and is used for lower pressure, drop higher flow conditions. This custom fill characterization can vary from 30 to 100 percent, depending on flow conditions, pressure drop, noise level, and outlet velocity required. Precise process and velocity control are achieved at every stage of valve opening, with exceptionally high rangeability in a single control valve.

For gas and steam applications, extreme noise and vibration are reduced or eliminated. The patented FlexStream technology expands upon the strengths of Mogas quarter turn ball valves to offer application-specific trim engineered for high delta-P applications, replaceable control element design, greater Cv per inch compared to the competition, and a smaller dimensional envelope in a traditional control valve.

Saturday, September 30, 2017

Disassembling the Pratt Industrial BF Series Resilient Seated Butterfly Valve

On an earlier video we demonstrated how to assemble the Pratt BF Series butterfly valve. In this video we demonstrate how to DISASSEMBLE the valve.


The Pratt BF Series butterfly valve is the resilient seated butterfly workhorse for these industries:
  • Mining
  • Food/Beverage
  • Power
  • OEM’s
  • Chemical/Pharmaceutical
  • Desalination
  • Petroleum/Oilfield
  • Ultra Pure Water
  • Transportation
  • Marine
  • Irrigation
  • HVAC
Sizes: 2" through 48"
Body: Ductile Iron (65-45-12)
Disc: Ductile Iron Nickle Plated, Ductile Iron Nylon 11, CF8M Stainless Steel, Aluminum Bronze
Stem: 416 S.S. Heat Treated
Resilient Seat: EPDM, Buna-N, Viton
Actuation Options: Worm Gear, Lever, Pneumatic, Electric
Pressure Ratings: 2" – 12" 230psi; 14" – 48" 150psi

Features:
========
• Innovative 3 point connection, tongue andgroove seat allows for higher pressure rating and full Vacuum service
• Unique secondary shaft seals prevent leakage from shaft.
• Two piece shaft design provides maximum strength and a high flow characteristic disc.

For more information, visit http://www.psi-team.com or call Piping Specialties at 800-223-1468.

Monday, September 11, 2017

A Great Glossary for Metal Bellows, Metal Expansion Joints, Ball Joints, Alignment Guides, and Strut Joints

Bellows expansion jointHere's a great industry glossary for metal bellows, metal expansion joints, ball joints, alignment guides, and strut joints courtesy of Hyspan:

ANACONDA: A company founded in 1908 known for copper mining and manufactured products made from copper alloys. The manufacturing division was renamed Anamet Industrial and manufactured metal expansion joints, strip wound and corrugated metal hose, Vibration Eliminators®, and OEM products. Anamet Industrial was acquired by Hyspan and these products are manufactured by Hyspan subsidiary, Universal Metal Hose.

ALIGNMENT GUIDE: A devise installed adjacent to expansion joints and along pipe or copper tube runs to maintain alignment. Most alignment guides are a "spider type" which permit axial movement (pipe or tube expansion or contraction) but they are not designed to react the weight of the pipe and media (Support). Refer to Series 9500 alignment guides.

ANCHOR: A structure that reacts pressure thrust and spring forces produced by expansion joints in piping systems generally referred to as a Main Anchor or an Intermediate Anchor.

ANCHOR BASE: An Anchor that is incorporated into the design of an expansion joint which can be a Main Anchor or an Intermediate Anchor.

ANGLE FLANGES: Flanged connections made by rolling structural angle. Commonly used in low pressure ducting. May be drilled and bolted, or edge welded.

ANGULAR ROTATION: The displacement of the longitudinal centerline of a bellows from a straight line into a circular arc. Sometimes confused with torsional rotational - see Torsion.

ANGULAR SPRING RATE: The moment (in.- lbs) per degree of angular displacement required to rotate the ends of a bellows out of plane with the bellows centerline in a circular arc. Normally measured in in.-lbs./degree. The angle is measured as the included angle between the planes of ends.

ASME CODE EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint manufactured to one of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Codes. Requires a code stamp obtained by certification of the manufacturer, and inspection of each product produced by an independent agency. The most common code is Section VIII Division 1 that requires a "U" stamp.

AXIAL DEFLECTION: The longitudinal centerline of the bellows remains straight with the ends parallel and the convoluted length compressed or extended.

AXIAL SPRING RATE: The force required to compress or extend the ends of a bellows with the longitudinal centerline straight and the ends parallel. Normally referred to in lbs./in. The spring rate without consideration of axial displacement is the "theoretical axial elastic spring rate". Bellows may not remain elastic throughout their range of deflection, and as a result the spring rate is reduced for greater deflections. The Working Spring Rate takes deflection into consideration and is commonly used by manufacturers. For a complete discussion see Section C-4 of the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association®

BANDS: In order to increase the thickness of the bellows necks for reinforcement or to facilitate welding, a band or collar can be added. The bands are normally fused to the neck by resistance roll welding or edge welding.

BARCO: A company founded in 1908 to manufacture ball joints for steam distribution from the locomotive to the passenger cars. Later became a family of products. Hyspan acquired some of these products and manufacturers Hyspan Barco Ball Joints , Strut Joints and Vibrasnubs and Venturis.

BELLOWS: The bellows is the flexible element of an expansion joint. Formed metal bellows are made from tubing by the application of internal pressure. The convolutions are formed in parallel planes that are perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the bellows - referred to as annular. The tubing is normally made from sheet or coil that is rolled into a tube and longitudinally welded.

CAMERA CORNER: A corner configuration used for rectangular expansion joints. Convoluted straight sections are meshed together with the convolution root of one side joined to crest of the adjacent side. Can be identified by a beveled corner shape.

CENTER SPOOL: The pipe spool that joins the two bellows elements in
a Double or Dual Expansion Joint or Universal Expansion Joint.

COLD SPRING: Also referred to as Preset. An expansion joint or ball joint is installed displaced axially, laterally or angulated from the manufactured configuration to increase the movement capability, or if the product is designed to deflect from the installed position to the neutral (manufactured) position in operation.

COLLAR: See Bands

COMPENSATOR: When used within the context of this web site, compensator refers to an expansion compensator (Series 8500) which is a specialized type of expansion joint. Compensator is sometimes used when referring to expansion joints in European countries.

CONTROL ROD: Devises normally made from rod or bar installed to limit the travel of each individual bellows in a universal expansion joint to the rated motion. Control rods are not designed to react pressure thrust - see Tie Rods.

CONVOLUTED LENGTH: For practical purposes the convoluted length is measured between the convolution sidewalls at each end of the bellows to allow an actual physical measurement to be made. For analytical purposes the convoluted length is measured between the centers of the radii of the end convolutions.

CONVOLUTED OR CORRUGATED: Each formed shape of the cross section consisting of a root and crest is a convolution or corrugation. With parallel sides the gap at the root and crest are equal, and referred to as "U" shaped. If the inside radii at the root and crest are equal but the gap between the sides is reduced, the cross section has an Ω shape, and is referred to as omega shaped.

CONVOLUTION CREST: The semicircular segment of the convolution at the outside diameter.

CONVOLUTION ROOT: The semicircular segment of the convolution at the inside diameter of the convolution.

COVER: A shield or shroud that covers the outside surface of a bellows to provide protection from mechanical damage or arc strikes. It may also be used to retain external insulation around the bellows, or as a uniform surface for insulation installed on the outside of the cover.

CYCLE LIFE: The cycle life or fatigue life expectancy of a bellows is based on the number of complete pressure and displacement cycles that result in metal failure. The most commonly used method of analysis is included in the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association®; however, when specified there are related methods included in ASME/ANSI B31.3 and ASME Section VIII Division 1.

DESIGN PRESSURE: The pressure specified that is used to design a product. Normally given in conjunction with the design temperature to specify the material properties to be used. The design pressure is normally equal to or greater than the operating or Working Pressure.

DIRECTIONAL ANCHOR: An Anchor that allows movement along one or two axes but provides a structural reaction along the remaining axis (axes).

DOUBLE OR DUAL EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint commonly referred to as a Dual Center Anchor Base Expansion Joint consisting of two bellows joined by a (center) spool that includes an Intermediate Anchor. Required for long pipe runs where the axial movement exceeds the capability of a single joint. Sometimes confused with a Universal Expansion Joint that is primarily designed to absorb lateral offset.

DRIP LEG: Also referred to as a drip pot or mud pot is added to the bottom of the body or stationary portion of an expansion joint in the form of a welding saddle or reinforced saddle to collect condensate and sediment.

EASY WAY: Refers to stresses and motions in rectangular expansion joints which
are perpendicular to the long side of the expansion joint.

EFFECTIVE AREA: The cross-sectional area of the bellows based on the Mean Diameter of the convolutions. This area multiplied by the pressure equals the Pressure Thrust Force (Lbs.).

EQUALIZING RINGS: External rings installed between each convolution of a bellows and at the ends with a cross section that approximates the shape of a compressed convolution. They reinforce the bellows against internal pressure, and limit the movement of each convolution to the rated travel.

EXPANSION COMPENSATOR: See Compensator.

EXPANSION JOINT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (EJMA)®: An organization of leading manufacturers of metal bellows expansion joints established in 1958 that publishes the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, the worldwide standard for metal bellows expansion joint design.

EXPANSION JOINT: When used within the context of this web site, expansion joint refers to a metal bellows expansion joint designed to absorb axial, lateral and angular motions in piping systems.

EXTERNAL PRESSURE: Refers to a condition where the highest pressure is on the outside surface of the bellows. This can result from an internal vacuum or designs where the bellows is enclosed in a pressure vessel and externally pressurized (Series 3500 & Series 8500). All metal bellows rated for a pressure greater than 15 psig are suitable for full vacuum service.

EXTERNALLY PRESSURIZED EXPANSION JOINT: Generally refers to a type of expansion joint designed to absorb axial motion that has an enclosed bellows designed with the fluid external to the bellows. Sometimes referred to as an externally pressurized and guided since the design includes integral guides. Refer to Series 3500 expansion joints.

FATIGUE LIFE: See Cycle Life.

FLEX TORQUE: Refers to the moment (ft.-lb.) required to angulate a ball joint as the result of the seal resistance. These values are normally for the breakaway condition.

FLOATING FLANGE: A flange that is not welded. Normally a back up flange for a Lap Joint Stub or a Van Stone.

FLOW DIRECTION: The direction of flow of the fluid in a piping system. May be an important consideration in the design of an expansion joint. Some expansion joint configurations (not all) must be oriented in accordance with the flow direction and include external marking indicating the correct orientation. Systems with bi-directional flow require special consideration.

FLOW LINER: A flow liner is sometimes referred to as an internal sleeve and is designed to isolate the internal surface of the bellows from the impingement of the flowing fluid. It eliminates bellows resonance resulting for the flow induced vibration, and provides a thermal barrier as a result of the stagnant flow between the liner and bellows . Most flow is unidirectional and the liner is welded to the upstream end. The direction of the flow is marked on the exterior of the expansion joint. For bi-directional flow a Telescoping Flow Liner may be recommended.

GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT: Gimbal expansion joints permit angular motion in any plane. They consist of two pairs of hinged connections to a floating ring. They are designed to react the full pressure thrust. When two or three joints are correctly installed in a pipe run they absorb motion in multiple planes by lateral offset.

GRAFOIL®: Name identifying a proprietary formulation consisting of flake graphite and synthetic oil that is used as an injected sealant in Hyspan Perma-Pax Packed Expansion Joints and some Hyspan Barco Ball Joints products.

GROOVED END: A common method of installing expansion joints in fire protection systems and potable water lines. The connection consists of grooved pipe, non-metallic seals and an external clamp. The configuration of the groove is specified by ANSI/AWWA C606-87.

HARD WAY: Refers to stresses and motions in rectangular expansion joints which
are perpendicular to the short side of the expansion joint.

HINGED EXPANSION JOINT: Hinged expansion joints permit angular motion in one plane. The hinges are designed to react the full pressure thrust. When two or three joints are correctly installed in a pipe run they absorb motion in one plane by lateral offset.

HVAC: An abbreviation for Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

INJECTOR: An assembly consisting of a body and a plunger installed on packed expansion joints and packed ball joints designed to inject packing. See Series 6500 Perma-Pax Expansion Joints and Hyspan Barco Ball Joints. The injector may include a valve as added safety when injecting packing.

IN-LINE PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint configuration that is Pressure Balanced that does not require a change in flow direction. Primarily designed for axial travel. Configuration can be internally pressurized as shown in the illustration or externally pressurized.

IN-LINE PRESSURE BALANCED HINGED OR GIMBALED EXPANSION JOINT: Proprietary Hyspan designs that are pressure balanced and permit lateral offset - See In-line Pressure Balanced.

IN-LINE SEISMIC EXPANSION JOINT: A proprietary product manufactured by Hyspan for seismic isolation that is capable of axial, lateral, angular and torsional movements - Series 3500IS.

INTERMEDIATE ANCHOR: An Anchor that reacts the spring force of a metal bellow expansion joint, or the seal resistance force of a packed expansion joint or ball joint. They are not designed to react the Pressure Thrust Force.

INTERNAL SLEEVE: See Flow Liner

INTERNALLY GUIDED EXPANSION JOINT: The inherent design of an externally pressurized expansion joint or a packed expansion joint provides guiding that is integral to the expansion joint. There are other forms of internal guiding such a special flow liner designs. All are suitable for axial travel only.

LAMINATED BELLOWS: Laminated or multi-ply bellows are made by fabricating individual tubes and telescoping them together prior to forming. The maximum pressure, spring rate, and stability pressure are increased in direct proportion to the number of plies. The axial deflection is determined by the individual ply thickness. Multi-ply designs permit a lower spring rate and higher cycle life than a single ply configuration for an equivalent pressure. Multi-ply designs are effective for high pressure bellows, and they are recommended for applications involving vibration or rapid cyclic movement because of the inherent damping provided by the relative movement of the plies.

LAP JOINT END: Consists of a stub end and a lap joint backup flange. The stub end and flange conform to the specifications of ASME/ANSI B16.9 & 16.5 respectively. Normally used when flange hole alignment is an issue or if there is a requirement for a corrosion resistant wetted surface. Bellows or tubing that is flared over a flange face is a Van Stone and normally does not conform to the same specifications.

LATERAL DEFLECTION: The displacement or offset of the ends of the bellows perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline with the ends remaining parallel.

LATERAL SPRING RATE: The force required to displace (offset) the longitudinal centerline of a bellow with the ends parallel. Normally referred to in lbs./in.

LIMIT ROD: Devises normally made from rod or bar installed to limit the travel of an expansion joint to the rated motion. They are designed to react the full pressure thrust in the event of an anchor failure. See also Control Rods and Tie Rods.

MAIN ANCHOR: An Anchor that reacts the combined Pressure Thrust Force and the spring force of a metal bellow expansion joint (spring rate multiplied by displacement) or the seal resistance force of a packed expansion.

MATERIAL THICKNESS: The original thickness of the tubing used to form the bellows. For multi-ply or laminated bellows it is the thickness of the individual plies.

MEAN DIAMETER: The diameter of the bellows convolutions calculated by adding the convolution inside diameter and outside diameter and dividing by two. Used to calculate the bellows Effective Area.

MITERED CORNER: Corner configuration used for rectangular expansion joints. Convoluted straight sections are meshed together and welded at the 45° intersection – similar to a picture frame.

MOTION INDICATORS: A devise added to an expansion joint that is used to indicate the displacement of the expansion joint from the manufactured position.

MULTI-PLY: See Laminated

NDT: Refers to Non-Destructive Testing - liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic, radiographic and other tests and inspections that do not alter the service life.

NECK: The neck or tangent is the straight tubular segment at each end of the bellows.

NPS: Refers to Nominal Pipe Size. For steel pipe see ANSI B36.10, and ANSI 36.19 for stainless steel pipe. Occasionally referred to as IPS - iron pipe size.

OFF-SET METHOD®: Identifies a method of compensating for pipe movement by utilizing ball joints to absorb the motion by lateral displacement.

OMEGA SHAPED: Refers to a convolution shape with inside radii at the root and crest are equal but the gap between the sides is reduced - see Convoluted or Corrugated.

OPERATING PRESSURE: See Working Pressure

PACKED EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint design that utilizes packing material as a seal - Series 6500. Also referred to as a packed slip expansion joint. Prior to the common usage of metal bellows expansion joints, expansion joints were identified as "packed" and "packless" referring to joints with a bellows seal.

PACKLESS EXPANSION JOINT: Metal bellows expansion joint - See Packed Expansion Joint.

PANTOGRAPH LINKAGE: A scissors like structure installed on a Universal Expansion Joint to equalize the movement of the two bellows elements. The linkage is not designed to react pressure thrust but can be designed to support the weight of the Center Spool that joins the bellows.

PERMA-PAX EXPANSION JOINT: Identifies Hyspan Series 6500 Packed Expansion Joints.

PIPE GUIDE: See Alignment Guide

PLANAR PIPE GUIDE: Limits motion to transverse and angular in one plane. Commonly used in suspended piping systems incorporating ball joints, and hinge and gimbal expansion joints to maintain the piping in plane.

PLATE FLANGES: Bolted flanges made from plate material that generally do not have a hub and are normally flat face (raised face is optional). Commonly made to the inside and outside diameters and drilling of standard flanges such as ASME/ANSI B16.5, DIN and JIS standards. Frequently incorporated into expansion joint designs to save length and incorporate special features such as tie rods.

PLY: Refers to the thickness of the material used to manufacture a bellows. May be a single thickness (one ply) or multi-ply, Laminated.

PRESET: See Cold Spring

PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint design that incorporates a balancing bellows and linkage to internally react the Pressure Thrust Force. Although the external pressure forces are eliminated, there are spring forces resulting from the bellows that must be reacted. See In-Line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint, In-Line Pressure Balanced Hinged or Gimbaled Expansion Joints and Pressure Balanced Elbow.

PRESSURE BALANCED ELBOW EXPANSION JOINT: A Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint that incorporates a bellows, an elbow (or tee) and a balancing bellows (not in flow) linked by tie rods. If lateral motion is required two bellows are installed and referred to as a Universal Pressure Balanced Elbow.

PRESSURE THRUST FORCE: When the ends of an expansion joint or system are capped and pressurized, there is a resulting force that is equal to the applied pressure times the Effective Area of the bellows element, or the effective area of a packed expansion joint. The only force (internal to the expansion joint) opposing the pressure thrust results from the axial spring force of the bellows or seal resistance of the packing. Bellows spring forces are generally insignificant compared to the pressure thrust and a reaction must be provided. See Pressure Thrust Technical Notes.

PUMP CONNECTOR: A metal bellows assembly or hose assembly designed to isolate pumps and other mechanical equipment from rigid piping. See Series 4500 Braided Pump Connectors and Series 5500 Bellows Pump Connectors.

PURGE CONNECTIONS: A connection to an expansion joint to introduce external fluids (normally steam or air) to prevent solids from collecting between the Flow Liner and bellows inside surface.

REDUNDANT PLY: As a safety measure, a bellows can be designed with two plies with each ply capable of meeting the service conditions. The outer ply is considered to be redundant (at least if the inner ply doesn't fail). The technique is normally combined with a method of testing for failure of the inner ply - see Testable Bellows.

REFRIGERATION CONNECTOR: A special type of braided metal hose used for refrigeration service. Must be internally cleaned to refrigeration system standards. Hyspan Anaconda Vibration Eliminators ® are manufactured for this application.

REINFORCED BELLOWS: Metal bellows configurations that have external devises (normally rings) that reinforce the bellows against internal pressure. They can have the added benefit of equalizing the movement of the individual convolutions. Common methods are Equalizing Rings, circular cross section rings and "T" shape fabricated rings.

RETAINER: A component of Hyspan Barco Ball Joints that retains the ball and seals. Threaded design through 2” NPS, flanged design 2-1/2” NPS and over. Allows disassembly of the ball joint for maintenance.

SEAL RESISTANCE FORCE: Force resulting from the resistance created by the seals of a packed expansion joint (Series 6500) or ball joint (Hyspan Barco Ball Joints).

SERVICE PORT: An opening in the body or stationary portion of an expansion joint in the form of a welding saddle or reinforced nozzle to provide a branch connection.

SHIPPING DEVICES: Often referred to as shipping bars. They are installed on most metal bellows expansion joints to maintain the factory configuration during shipping and installation. They must be removed after installation and prior to pressure testing - they are not designed to react pressure thrust. Hyspan shipping bars are painted yellow and labeled. They are not to be confused with Tie Rods or Control Rods which remain installed in service.

SHROUD: See Cover

SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint with a single bellows element.

SLOTTED HINGES: A Hinged Expansion Joint that permits angular motion in one plane but does not react pressure thrust. The purpose of the hinge is to support the weight of the Center Spool in a dual or double hinge arrangement. Tie Rods are commonly added to react the pressure thrust.

SPRING RATE: General reference to the spring constant of a metal bellows - refer to Axial Spring Rate, Lateral Spring Rate and Angular Spring Rate.

SQUIRM PRESSURE: Internally pressurized bellows become unstable at a critical or squirm pressure. Bellows that are long relative to their diameter tend to buckle much like a long column under compression. Another type of squirm referred to as in-plane occurs when the individual convolutions deviate from parallel planes. Either condition represents the maximum pressure capability of the bellows, and failure will occur if the pressure is increased.

STABILITY PRESSURE: See Squirm Pressure

STRUT JOINT: An assembly designed to brace or stabilize tanks, vessels, piping and other equipment against external loading such as wind loads and seismic events. An assembly with two strut joints separated by a spool allows lateral and angular movement but is rigid axially. Also referred to as a flexible strut joint. When used with a Vibrasnub allows gradual axial motion and absorbs shock and vibration.

SUPPORT: A devise designed to react the weight of pipe, components and the media of pipe runs.

SWEAT END: Refers to an overlapping or telescoping end connection that is joined by soldering or brazing. Commonly used with copper tube.

TANGENT: See Neck

TELESCOPING FLOW LINER: A Flow Liner that is made in two parts that are telescoped together and welded at both ends of the expansion joint with the free ends in the center. Commonly used for bi-directional flow.

TEST PRESSURE: Expansion joints are leak tested to establish that they are leak tight, and /or proof tested to determined that they can be safely pressurized at the operating conditions. There are many methods of testing but the most common method is a hydrostatic test to 1½ times the Design Pressure. Test conditions should replicate operating conditions and test structural components such as tie rods, hinge and gimbal attachments. In order to be acceptable the expansion joint must be leak tight and not permanently deformed after testing. Expansion joints made the ASME code are tested to a pressure that is adjusted for elevated temperature. Because of the unique properties of a bellows this may not be practical - refer to the applicable code to determine the correct pressure.

TESTABLE BELLOWS: As a safety measure a bellows can be designed with two plies with a test port(s) are installed on the bellows neck that extend into the space between the plies. The pressure is monitored between the plies to detect a leak in the inner ply as an early warning. The most common testable bellows has two ports at opposite ends 180º apart with a screen between the plies. There is a flow test to ensure free flow between the ports.

THINNING: Most bellows are formed by application of internal pressure to a tube with a diameter approximately equal to the final convolution inside diameter. The material is drawn from the length of the tube. As a general rule the original tube length is approximately three times longer than the finished part. Thinning may occur at the Root and Crest of the convolutions depending on the forming method used. The maximum thinning for Hyspan bellows is 5%. Most bellows performance data is based on material parameters in the "as formed" condition.

THERMAL EXPANSION: Most metals expand when they are heated and contract as they are cooled.  This is a property that is unique to each metal and metal alloys which varies for different temperature ranges.  For piping the ASME has established values for this property, coefficients of thermal expansion, which have been used to calculate the linear expansion of commonly used pipe materials – Thermal Expansion of Materials

TIE ROD: Devises, usually rods or assemblies made from rod and pipe whose primary function is to react the full Pressure Thrust at operating and test conditions, and to allow lateral offset. They can also function as limit stops to prevent over travel of the individual bellows elements of a universal expansion joint, and to stabilize the center spool of a universal expansion joint.

TIED UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT: A Universal Expansion Joint with tie rods that is designed to absorb lateral movement in all planes.

TOROIDAL BELLOWS: A bellows with a toroidal shaped cross section designed primarily for high pressure applications.

TORSION: A moment (in.-lb.) or displacement around the longitudinal centerline of the bellows - twisting. Although bellows can react a limited amount of torsion they are not designed for torsional displacement, or to react torsional moments. Should not be confused with Angular Rotation.

UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint configuration consisting of two bellows elements joined by a Center Spool. A universal expansion joint will absorb lateral motion in all planes, axial and angular motion but is limited to low pressure because of instability without tie rods or other structural components. Most commonly used as a Tied Universal Expansion Joint.

UNREINFORCED: Refers to a bellows that does not require external Reinforcement for support.

VAN STONE: A coined word or phrase (sometimes one word) that refers to a bellows Neck or a tube that is rolled over the face of a flange. This produces a floating flange and is often used to provide a corrosion resistance wetted surface and compensates for flange hole misalignment. It should not be confused with Lap Joint End, and because of manufacturing limitations the outside diameter of the van stone is not necessarily the same as the raise face of a flange.

V-FLEX: Identifies a Hyspan metal hose product consisting of two flexible hoses at 45º joined by a 90º elbow. Designed primarily for seismic isolation of small diameter piping. See V-Flex.

VIBRASNUB: Identifies a Hyspan product designed to brace large piping, vessels and tanks while absorbing shock and vibration when used in conjunction with Strut Joints. See Hyspan Barco Flexible Strut Joints and Vibrasnubs.

VIBRATION ELIMINATOR: A name that identifies the Anaconda Vibration Eliminator® manufactured by Hyspan. See Refrigeration Connector.

WELDED BELLOWS: Bellows made from flat or shaped disks that are welded together at the root an crest of the convolutions. They are commonly used for scientific and instrumentation applications. Prior to improvements in bellows forming techniques they were used for industrial applications.

WORKING PRESSURE: The system pressure during normal operation. See Design Pressure.

Visit http://www.psi-team.com or call 800-223-1468 for any Hyspan requirement.

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

An Easy, Permanent Hydrostatic Seal for Cylindrical Objects Passing Through a Barrier

Link-Seal
Looking for a fast, easy and permanent way to run just about any cylindrical object through a wall, ceiling, or bulkhead?

LINK-SEAL® modular seals are considered to be the premier method for permanently sealing pipes of any size passing through walls, floors and ceilings. In fact, any cylindrical object may be quickly, easily and permanently sealed against the entry of water, soil or backfill material.

Features:
  • Install in up to 75% less time compared to lead-oakum joints, hand-fitted flashings, mastics, or casing boots.
  • Rated at 20 psig (40ft of head), which exceeds the performance requirements of most applications.
  • Designed for use as a permanent seal. Seal elements are specially compounded to resist aging and attack from ozone, sunlight, water, and a wide range of chemicals.
  • Standard fasteners have a two-part zinc dichromate and proprietary corrosion inhibiting coating. Corrosion resistant 316 stainless steel available for maximum corrosion protection.
  • NSF 61 and Factory Mutual Fire Approved materials available. Also carry a wide variety of approvals from various Federal agencies, associations, code groups, laboratories, and organizations.
  • Manufactured in an ISO 9001:2000 certified facility.
  • 16 sizes, color-coded EPDM, Nitrile, and Silicone elastomers may be used with various hardware options to match performance characteristics with service conditions.
Watch the video below to see the Link-Seal installation process. For information about Link-Seal, contact Piping Specialties, Inc at 800-223-1468 or by visiting http://www.psi-team.com.

Thursday, August 31, 2017

Understanding Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic level transmitter
Hydrostatic level transmitter
(Drexelbrook)
Pressure measurement is an inferential way to determine the height of a column of liquid in a vessel in process control. The vertical height of the fluid is directly proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the column, meaning the amount of pressure at the bottom of the column, due to gravity, relies on a constant to indicate a measurement. Regardless of whether the vessel is shaped like a funnel, a tube, a rectangle, or a concave polygon, the relationship between the height of the column and the accumulated fluid pressure is constant. Weight density depends on the liquid being measured, but the same method is used to determine the pressure.

A common method for measuring hydrostatic pressure is a simple gauge. The gauge is installed at the bottom of a vessel containing a column of liquid and returns a measurement in force per unit area units, such as PSI. Gauges can also be calibrated to return measurement in units representing the height of liquid since the linear relationship between the liquid height and the pressure. The particular density of a liquid allows for a calculation of specific gravity, which expresses how dense the liquid is when compared to water. Calculating the level or depth of a column of milk in a food and beverage industry storage vessel requires the hydrostatic pressure and the density of the milk. With these values, along with some constants, the depth of the liquid can be calculated.

The liquid depth measurement can be combined with known dimensions of the holding vessel to calculate the volume of liquid in the container. One measurement is made and combined with a host of constants to determine liquid volume. The density of the liquid must be constant in order for this method to be effective. Density variation would render the hydrostatic pressure measurement unreliable, so the method is best applied to operations where the liquid density is known and constant.

Interestingly, changes in liquid density will have no effect on measurement of liquid mass as opposed to volume as long as the area of the vessel being used to store the liquid remains constant. If a liquid inside a vessel that’s partially full were to experience a temperature increase, resulting in an expansion of volume with correspondingly lower density, the transmitter will be able to still calculate the exact mass of the liquid since the increase in the physical amount of liquid is proportional to a decrease in the liquid’s density. The intersecting relationships between the process variables in hydrostatic pressure measurement demonstrate both the flexibility of process instrumentation and how consistently reliable measurements depend on a number of process related factors.

Visit PSI-Team.com for more information on pressure and level instrumentation.

Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Industrial Valve Basics

Industrial Valves
Industrial multi-port ball valves (Flo-Tite)
Valves are mechanical devices, essential control and regulating components of a piping system. They are the controlling element within any fluid handling systems; they control the flow and/or pressure of fluids such as liquids, gases, vapors, slurries, and more.

Because of the variety of fluids valves can accommodate, care and consideration are needed when selecting a valve that provides the right service level at the right price point.

For this reason, the types, models, and classifications of valves vary, however, they all offer the same basic function:

  • Stopping and starting flow
  • Increasing or reducing flow
  • Controlling the direction of flow
  • Regulating a flow or process pressure

To begin, the first classification of valves are the valves themselves; there are seven common types: gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly, check, and diaphragm. Each of these valves has models, the second classification. Depending on the valve of choice, the valves can be self-operated, manually operated, or controlled with an actuator that is pneumatic, electric, or hydraulic.

The third classification is based on mechanical motion of the valve closure.

Linear industrial valve
Internal view of
linear industrial valve
(Conval)
Linear Valve: the valve closure moves in a straight line between open and closed positions,
providing fully closed, a range of partially open, and fully open positions. Partially open positions provide throttling of the fluid flow at levels between no flow and full flow. Gate, globe, and diaphragm valves are characterized by linear motion. These valves are also referred to as multi-turn valves, because of the mechanical drive arrangement that some utilize to move the valve closure.

Internal view of rotary valve
Internal view of rotary (ball) valve.
Courtesy of Flo-Tite.
Rotary Valve: the valve closure travels along a circular or angular path; e.g. butterfly, plug, and ball valves. Rotary valves generally require an approximate quarter turn to complete the motion between fully open and fully closed positions.

There are many product and performance attributes to consider in the valve selection process, low maintenance burden and cost usually being highly ranked. It is also important to match the valve construction to the fluid the valve will be handling, e.g. is it corrosive or erosive? The level of physical stress, including frequency of use, temperature, pressure, and the speed at which flow is to be interrupted may be of concern.

Ultimately, each industrial process application will benefit from a carefully selected valve that closely matches the process performance requirements. Share your fluid control requirements and challenges with an industrial valve expert, combining your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop effective solutions.

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Assembling the Pratt Industrial BF Series Resilient Seated Butterfly Valve

Pratt Industrial BF Series butterfly valve
Pratt BF Series
The Pratt Industrial BF Series butterfly valve is recognized for it's quality and durability for use in these industries: Mining, Food/Beverage, Power, OEM’s, Chemical/Pharmaceutical, Desalination, Petroleum/Oilfield, Ultra Pure Water, Transportation, Marine, Irrigation, and HVAC.

The specifications are:
  • Sizes: 2" through 48"
  • Body: Ductile Iron (65-45-12)
  • Disc: Ductile Iron Nickle Plated, Ductile Iron Nylon 11, CF8M Stainless Steel, Aluminum Bronze
  • Stem: 416 S.S. Heat Treated
  • Resilient Seat: EPDM, Buna-N, Viton
  • Actuation Options: Worm Gear, Lever, Pneumatic, Electric
  • Pressure Ratings: 2" – 12" 230psi; 14" – 48" 150psi
Features:
  • Innovative 3 point connection, tongue andgroove seat allows for higher pressure rating and full Vacuum service
  • Unique secondary shaft seals prevent leakage from shaft.
  • Two piece shaft design provides maximum strength and a high flow characteristic disc.
Watch video below for assembly instructions:


For more information about the valve, read the BF Series brochure below. The full Pratt BF Series brochure PDF can be downloaded here.

Monday, August 14, 2017

An Introduction to Industrial Flowmeters

Electromagnetic flowmeter
Electromagnetic flowmeter
(courtesy of Azbil)
Flowmeters measure the rate or quantity of moving fluids, in most cases liquid or gas, in an open channel or closed conduit. There are two basic flow measuring systems: those which produce volumetric flow measurements and those delivering a weight or mass based measurement. These two systems, required in many industries such as power, chemical, and water, can be integrated into existing or new installations. For successful integration, the flow measurement systems can be installed in one of several methods, depending upon the technology employed by the instrument. For inline installation, fittings that create upstream and downstream connections that allow for flowmeter installation as an integral part of the piping system. Another configuration, direct insertion, will have a probe or assembly that extends into the piping cross section. There are also non-contact instruments that clamp on the exterior surface of the piping and gather measurements through the pipe wall without any contact with the flowing media.

Because they are needed for a variety of uses and industries,
Orifice plate
Orifice plate
(Flow-Lin)
there are multiple types of flowmeters classified generally into four main groups: mechanical, inferential, electrical, and other.

Quantity meters, more commonly known as positive displacement meters, mass flowmeters, and fixed restriction variable head type flowmeters all fall beneath the mechanical category. Fixed restriction variable head type flowmeters use different sensors and tubes, such as orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi and pitot tubes.

Inferential flowmeters include turbine and target flowmeters, as well as variable area flowmeters also known as rotameters.

Thermal Mass Flowmeter
Thermal Mass Flowmeter
(Kurz)
Laser doppler anemometers, ultrasonic flowmeters, thermal mass, and electromagnetic flowmeters are all electrical-type flowmeters.

The many application classes throughout the processing industries have led to the development of a wide range of flow measurement technologies and products. Each has its own advantages under certain operating conditions. Sorting through the choices and selecting the best technology for an application can be accomplished by consulting with a process instrumentation specialist. The combination of your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise will develop an effective solution.

For more information regarding any type or style of flowmeter, visit http://www.psi-team.com or call 800-223-1468.