Showing posts with label New York. Show all posts
Showing posts with label New York. Show all posts

The Reotemp TDS Pressure Transmitter and Switch With Display

The Reotemp TDS pressure transmitter and switch with display features include 0.25% accuracy, display, and electrical connections are independently rotatable 335°/343°, analog outputs switchable between 4-20ma or voltage, rugged construction, with protection from shock, over-range, and over-voltage. Additionally, the TSDS calibration range is adjustable and provides excellent long-term stability.

For more information on Reotemp products in New England, contact PSI Controls / Piping Specialties. Call 800-223-1468 or visit

The AMETEK Drexelbrook Impulse Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter

Drexelbrook Impulse

The Drexelbrook Impulse is a guided wave radar (TDR) that measures all liquids and slurries' overall level and other volumetric measures. When competitive water sensors fail, the Impulse continues to provide accurate values. 

The Drexelbrook Impulse is a two-wire guided wave radar that uses field-proven TDR level (Time Domain Reflectometry) technology to produce accurate Total Level, Distance, and Volumetric outputs on all liquids and slurries. 

The Impulse handles even the most challenging level measuring applications. It will continue to give dependable and accurate measurements even in the presence of disturbances such as agitated or uneven surfaces, foam, or probe coating. Changes in the density and dielectric characteristics, dusts, mist, and turbulence do not affect it. When other water level sensors fail, the Impulse continues to measure. 

This water level sensor is a perfect replacement for costly mechanical dispenser systems, with a wide range of probe types and material possibilities for various applications. 

This guided wave radar is simple to use for any user due to its simple navigation, push-button setups, and HART connections. It only takes a few minutes to install. Choose your level measuring type and language, and the Impulse is ready to use. 

The Impulse guided wave radar is intrinsically safe, explosion-proof, and non-incendive, and it does not require calibration or level changes.

Additionally, Drexelbrook recently introduced an enlarged coaxial sensor for The Impulse GWR. The new 1.66" (42mm) diameter probe provides reliable accuracy within high viscosity liquids. The new enlarged coaxial sensor option for The Impulse GWR allows the material to flow off the sensor easily when used with viscous fluids.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls - New England's Premier Valve and Instrumentation Source

Piping Specialties, Inc. was created in 1975 to provide industrial users in the Northeast with specialty valves and mechanical products and unsurpassed customer service. Piping Specialties' customer base and product offerings have grown steadily and sustainably over the years.  PSI Controls provides system design, sales, and service of process controls and instrumentation. PSI Controls offer a broad range of engineering expertise and experience in applying automated valves and process instrumentation in the most demanding applications.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls


The CPV O-SEAL® Valve

CPV’s flagship O-SEAL® valves have been the industry’s standard-bearer for bubble-tight performance and robust longevity in high pressure applications. All O-SEAL® valves provide pressure ratings up to 6000 PSI, with an optional vacuum service available. They provide superior bubble-tight performance, even with elusive gases like hydrogen and helium, and are resistant to debris and seat damage. 

For more information about O-SEAL® valves in New England, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at

Level Measurement for Water in Sewage Pools

Level Measurement for Water in Sewage Pools

This application takes place at a large power plant well known for its "Green Approach" and it's commitment to ensuring a clean and healthy atmosphere in and around the plant. 

The branched sewer system of the power plant requires instant maintenance and control. The plant uses water to operate the turbine. This water and other wastes move to the city’s wastewater treatment plant through the sewage system.

Some of the sewers are dispersed in remote locations around the plant, making it difficult for personal maintenance personnel to approach and repair damage on time. Plant technicians were looking for a solution to control the sewers better and avoid cases where wastewater might overflow. 

The sewage pool readings had to be transmitted to the central DCS because the sewage system connects to a central control room. The plant needed a 24/7 watch and an on-site guard to gain maximum control over those sewers. 

Technicians also stressed that wastewater flooding was inevitable because it takes time for the equipment to handle blockages. This flooding has caused severe damage to the environment. It was essential to control the wastewater level in the sewers to avoid cases such as these from reappearing. 

The Drexelbrook Usonic - The Solution 

After a lengthy examination of several possibilities, the plant decided to install two Drexelbrook USonic systems in its sewage pools. The ability of USonic to produce non-contact, continuous, and accurate readings of the water level in the pools gave the engineers of the plant a clear picture of the pools' status. 

Its compact size and integral construction simplify its installation, offering an efficient solution in no time at all. The USonic had no problem providing 12ft water level readings with a measurement range of up to 30 ft.  It can map obstacles in the pool and memorize interfering signals with its scan distance function. 

The USonic was linked to the central control system via 4-20mA, allowing the plant engineers to control the water level in the sewers constantly. The engineers know that the sewers would maintain the correct water level, and the system would be alerted in an emergency. 


The two USonic systems installed in the power plant give complete control over the sewers' water level to the plant's engineers. The systems' ability to display continuous level readings around the clock improved maintenance crews handle the sewage system.

To detect sudden blockages and avoid environmental damage on time, they can now save time. The plant received an immediate return on investment due to its compact size and reduced price.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls

The Operation of the Cash Valve B Series, Type E-55, Type PBE-1, Type PBE-2, and Type PBE-5

Cash Valve is a leading manufacturer of pressure regulating and back pressure valves offering products for steam, air/gas, liquid, and cryogenic applications. Products range in size from 1/8" - 2" for threaded NPT connections and up through 6 inches for flanged configurations. Temperatures range between cryogenic up through 800°F, and materials of construction are offered with iron, brass, bronze, carbon and stainless steel depending on your application.

For more information about Cash Valve, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. by calling 800-223-1468 or by visiting their web site at

The Flow Safe F9000 "SurgeFlow" Liquid Surge Relief Valve

Liquid product pipelines must be protected from liquid surges. Surges are caused by pump failure, rapid block valve closing, non-return check valve hard-shutting, emergency shutdown of a tank or loading system, or even a pump coming on or tripping. The magnitude of surge pressures varies, some virtually undetectable to those severe enough to cause significant damage. These propagating waves, either increasing or decreasing rapidly, are commonly known as a transient hydraulic surge of water hammer that can cause severe damage to liquid product pipelines, vessels, flanges, valving, and associated equipment. 

The Flow Safe SurgeFlow series has been developed exclusively for liquid surge protection. These valves are extremely simple and 100% reliable. The dome cavity volume on top of the main valve piston is filled with nitrogen gas to affect the valve's proper set pressure. Dome gas pressure is set according to the characteristic piston seat-to-seal area ratio for the given valve size. This dome load forces the main valve into a closed position using a soft elastomer seat, providing a 100% tight shut-off. When surge pressure is sensed, the SurgeFlow valve piston opens immediately as the liquid fluid force acting under the piston overcomes the force from the dome gas working on the top. The piston continues to lift in proportion to the pressure surge, slightly compressing the dome gas. The closing cycle responds directly to pressure decay in the piping upstream of the SurgeFlow surge relief valve. 

SurgeFlow series valves are designed for accurate and repeatable performance. They will handle both minimum and maximum surge cases when called upon to relieve. Flow Safe suggests all surge relief valves be located nearest the point where maximum pressure can occur in the main pipeline for optimal safety purposes. 

For more information about Flow Safe products in New England, contact Piping Specialties. Call them at 800-223-1468, or visit their website at

Sanitary Process Refractometers for Food, Beverage & Dairy Industries: The Vaisala K-PATENTS PR-43A

Vaisala K-PATENTS® PR-43A Models PR-43-AC, PR-43-AP, PR-43-APT

Vaisala K-PATENTS® Sanitary Process Refractometers PR-43-AC for hygienic installations in small pipe line sizes of 2.5 inch and smaller; PR-43-AP for hygienic installations in large pipes, tanks, cookers, crystallizers and kettles and for higher temperatures up to 150°C (300 °F); and the PR-43-APT for flush mounting installations in cookers, cooling crystallizers and other vessels that have scrapers or mixers.

Sanitary Refractometer Applications:

Extraction, evaporation, brewing, distilling, sugar dissolving, blending, filling. Alcohol, rum, whiskey, brandy, vodka, molasses, liquors, cider, alcoholic beverages, pre-mixed liquors. Beer and malt beverages, wort, cut beer, root beer. Juices, blended vegetable and fruit juices and nectars, still drinks, vegetable and juice concentrates, iced tea and coffee, instant coffee and tea. Soft drinks, energy and sport drinks, beverage base. Wines, grape must.

Sanitary Refractometer 3A Approval:

The Sanitary refractometer PR-43-A is Sanitary 3-A approved to meet the highest hygiene requirements of food production. The 3-A Symbol assures that the Sanitary Refractometer

PR-43-A conforms to 3-A Sanitary Standard Number 46-04 for Refractometers and Energy-Absorbing Optical Sensors for Milk and Milk Products and it has passed the independent Third Party Verification inspection for 3-A Symbol authorization.

For more information about Vaisala K-PATENTS products in New New England, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. / PSI Controls. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at

ARCA Control Valves in New England

ARCA develops, manufactures, and markets control valves on an international scale primarily for the chemical, food, power, and oil and natural gas industries.

High-performance control valves from ARCA are capable companions in industrial and large-scale power plants by ensuring safe and reliable operation and can be used in all high and low-pressure steam, oil, gas, water/boiler feedwater, and condensate circuits.

Oil and natural gas are the primary sources of energy driving the global economy. ARCA valves have helped ensure production and process reliability in the oil and natural gas industries for many years, and a wide variety of precision-engineered control valves are available that include DN15 (1/2) to DN600 (24") and PN16 to PN400 (ANSI 150-2500) sizes as well as special-purpose valves for all media handled in these areas.

ARCA valves are also indispensable in steel production. Steel production and processing require valves that offer ultra-high performance and a long service life.

Integrated in the bypass section of turbo-compressors, ARCA valves reliably carry out multiple tasks simultaneously by assisting during the start-up and shut-down phases of the compressor.

Concentrated Solar Power plants convert solar radiation into electrical energy. Systems that use  thermal oils as a heat-transfer medium produce temperatures that can reach 400 °C at approximately 40 bar in the solar array. Such applications integrate reliable ECOTROL® 6H high-pressure valves, which feature a bellows seal.

The BIOVENT® control valve developed for the food and pharmaceutical industry, for example, is available in many designs and connection layouts and with drives and positioners in stainless steel to cater to all applications.

For more information on ARCA Control Valves, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at

Setting Up and Calibrating the Drexelbrook MultiPoint II Level Switch

This video demonstrates how to calibrate and set the Drexelbrook MultiPoint II level switch.

The Drexelbrook Multipoint II level switch product offers three control points located anywhere along a single vertically inserted level sensing element. This level switch can be used to provide high level, high-high level, and low level control points. It also provides an adjustable differential feature for one of the control points for pump on/pump off control making it ideal for sump level control. It is designed to be intrinsically safe for Class I Groups A,B,C,D and Class II Groups E,F,G (Div. 1 and 2). The unit is mounted in FM approved explosion proof housing. The MultiPoint II has no moving parts and the need for maintenance is therefore eliminated. The Drexelbrook MultiPoint II is an economical solution for processes requiring multiple operating points.

For more information about level instrumentation, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. / PSI Controls by calling 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at



LINK-SEAL® is a modular elastomer sealing system that creates a permanent, hydrostatic seal for almost any cylindrical object as it traverses a barrier. The modular LINK-SEAL ® seals are the primary technique for sealing tubes of any size continuously through walls and ceilings. Indeed, any cylinder-shaped item can be secured against water, soil or backfill material rapidly, readily and permanently.


  • Install in up to 75% less time compared to lead-oakum joints, hand-fitted flashings, mastics, or casing boots.
  • Rated at 20 psig (40ft of head), which exceeds the performance requirements of most applications.
  • Designed for use as a permanent seal. Seal elements are specially compounded to resist aging and attack from ozone, sunlight, water, and a wide range of chemicals.
  • Standard fasteners have a two-part zinc dichromate and proprietary corrosion inhibiting coating. Corrosion resistant 316 stainless steel available for maximum corrosion protection.
  • NSF 61 and Factory Mutual Fire Approved materials available. Also carry a wide variety of approvals from various Federal agencies, associations, code groups, laboratories, and organizations.
  • Manufactured in an ISO 9001certified facility.
  • 16 sizes, color-coded EPDM, Nitrile, and Silicone elastomers may be used with various hardware options to match performance characteristics with service conditions.


  • Pressure resistant to 20psig (40 ft of head)
  • Standard  — EPDM – rubber (black)
  • Oil Resistant — Nitrile rubber (green)
  • Temperature resistant — Silicone rubber (gray)
  • Low Durometer for fragile pipe — EPDM rubber (blue) Shore 40 ± 5
  • Hardware Options - S316 Stainless Steel and Zinc Dichromate Coated Steel (1470 hr salt spray tested) hardware


Mechanical Contractors - Interior Piping Systems, Manhole Pipe Entry Seals, Waste Treatment Plants, Cased Road Crossings, Thermal Storage Systems, Fire Protection Wall Penetrations, Cased Railroad Crossings, Electrical Isolation of Pipes, Precast Concrete Vault Seals, Insulated Pipe Seals, Dual Containment Seals, Marine Applications, Noise Dampening, Flexible Sign & Pole Supports, Electrical Isolation of Pipe Supports, Mining, Pulp & Paper, Decorative Fountains, Pool Contractors, Electrical Contractors, Waste & Water Treatment, Telecommunications, Valve Pits, Refrigeration Buildings, Guard Post Assemblies, Power Generation Dams, Offshore Oil Rigs, High Pressure Tank Guards, Underground Steel Tanks, Precast Concrete Manufacturers, Perimeter Berm Installations Around Tank Farms, Flow Restrictions in Sewer Maintenance, Fluid Overflow Devices, Noise and Sway Dampener, Through Deck Fire Breaks, Bridge Construction, Septic Tank Installations, Coal Preparation Plants, Tunneling Operations.

For more information on LINK-SEAL® modular wall seals, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at

Mounting and Adjusting a Rack & Pinion Actuator

A-T Controls is a global leader in the design, manufacturing and sale of manual & automated process valves for all types of industries.

This video details the steps required to mount and adjust a TRIAC rack and pinion actuator to an AT Controls ball valve.

Piping Specialties sells, services, and automates A-T Controls valves and TRIAC actuators in New England.

For more information, contact Piping Specialties by calling 800-223-1468 or visiting

Instructional Video: Inserting K-Patents Generation 2.1 SAFE-DRIVE™ Process Refractometer PR-23-SD

This video is intended for individuals installing, commissioning, operating, and/ or servicing the K-Patents Safe-DriveTM Process Refractometer PR-23-SD, generation 2 model. The purpose of this video is to provide a quick guide for the above mentioned tasks in the form of K-Patents recommended best practices.

K-Patents SAFE-DRIVE™ design allows for safe and easy insertion and retraction of the sensor under full operating pressure without having to shut down the process.

Below the video is the document "Best Practices for the Safe-DriveTM Process Refractometer PR-23-SD Generation 2" for your convenience.

For more information, visit or call 800-223-1468.



Magnetic Flowmeters: Principles and Applications

Magnetic Flowmeter
Magnetic Flowmeter (Azbil)
Crucial aspects of process control include the ability to accurately determine qualities and quantities of materials. In terms of appraising and working with fluids (such as liquids, steam, and gases) the flowmeter is a staple tool, with the simple goal of expressing the delivery of a subject fluid in a quantified manner. Measurement of media flow velocity can be used, along with other conditions, to determine volumetric or mass flow. The magnetic flowmeter, also called a magmeter, is one of several technologies used to measure fluid flow.

In general, magnetic flowmeters are sturdy, reliable devices able to withstand hazardous environments while returning precise measurements to operators of a wide variety of processes. The magnetic flowmeter has no moving parts. The operational principle of the device is powered by Faraday's Law, a fundamental scientific understanding which states that a voltage will be induced across any conductor moving at a right angle through a magnetic field, with the voltage being proportional to the velocity of the conductor. The principle allows for an inherently hard-to-measure quality of a substance to be expressed via the magmeter. In a magmeter application, the meter produces the magnetic field referred to in Faraday's Law. The conductor is the fluid. The actual measurement of a magnetic flowmeter is the induced voltage corresponding to fluid velocity. This can be used to determine volumetric flow and mass flow when combined with other measurements.

The magnetic flowmeter technology is not impacted by temperature, pressure, or density of the subject fluid. It is however, necessary to fill the entire cross section of the pipe in order to derive useful volumetric flow measurements. Faraday's Law relies on conductivity, so the fluid being measured has to be electrically conductive. Many hydrocarbons are not sufficiently conductive for a flow measurement using this method, nor are gases.

Magmeters apply Faraday's law by using two charged magnetic coils; fluid passes through the magnetic field produced by the coils. A precise measurement of the voltage generated in the fluid will be proportional to fluid velocity. The relationship between voltage and flow is theoretically a linear expression, yet some outside factors may present barriers and complications in the interaction of the instrument with the subject fluid. These complications include a higher amount of voltage in the liquid being processed, and coupling issues between the signal circuit, power source, and/or connective leads of both an inductive and capacitive nature.

In addition to salient factors such as price, accuracy, ease of use, and the size-scale of the flowmeter in relation to the fluid system, there are multiple reasons why magmeters are the unit of choice for certain applications. They are resistant to corrosion, and can provide accurate measurement of dirty fluids ' making them suitable for wastewater measurement. As mentioned, there are no moving parts in a magmeter, keeping maintenance to a minimum. Power requirements are also low. Instruments are available in a wide range of configurations, sizes, and construction materials to accommodate various process installation requirements.

As with all process measurement instruments, proper selection, configuration, and installation are the real keys to a successful project. Share your flow measurement challenges of all types with a process measurement specialist, combining your process knowledge with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Understanding Guided Wave Radar Level Instruments

Guided Wave Radar (GWR) level transmitter
Guided Wave Radar (GWR)
level transmitter (Drexelbrook)
One of several technologies used for level measurement in process control is guided wave radar. A Guided Wave Radar (GWR) level transmitter combines time domain reflectometry (TDR), equivalent time sampling (ETS), and low power circuitry with a form factor that includes a wave guide extending into the contained media. TDR measures distance or level using pulses of electromagnetic energy. The pulse travels along the waveguide until it reaches the media surface and is reflected back to the unit. The speed of the pulse is known, so an accurate measure of the travel time for the signal can be processed into a distance measurement. Different media will produce a range of amplitude in the reflection, with a greater dielectric difference between air and target medium producing higher amplitude in the reflection. Industries, such as telephone, computer, and power transmission, have relied on TDR for years in order to detect and pinpoint breaks in wires or cables, making the technology more mature than it may appear by its limited timeline in level measurement applications.

ETS is used to measure the high speed, low power electromagnetic energy, and is typical when applying TDR to level measurement technology, where the signal travel distance and time are very short. The electromagnetic signals are captured by the ETS technology in nanoseconds, and are then reconstructed in the equivalent time of milliseconds. The radar scans the waveguide, collecting thousands of samples to be used in signal processing. Integrating both technologies into a single level transmitter yields an accurate and responsive instrument for process measurement.

GWR instrumentation is useful in the process control industry for its ability to measure levels in a quick, consistent way. GWR transmitters are contact radar level measurement tools, as opposed to pulsed non-contact radar transmitters that emit radar pulses through free air without a waveguide. Probes, inserted into the subject tank or vessel, serve as the waveguide for the pulsed signal. They guide the pulsed microwave vertically into the tank, providing a measure of immunity from disturbance by the tank and surrounding media. Guided wave radar technology differs from non-contact radar in a number of ways. The presence or absence of a probe is only one of them.

GWR level transmitters are used in process measurement applications throughout many industries, such as food and beverage. Tanks, pumps, and piping systems for both storage and transport can utilize GWR to continuously monitor levels. Other vessels, such as reduction, forming, mixing, heating, cooking, and cooling, can utilize GWR for similar reasons. Additionally, other stages of food and beverage manufacturing, such as centrifugation and decontamination, can be good fits for GWR technology. Guided wave radarís previous applicability in industries aside from liquid processing and implementation in a wide range of process settings show the flexibility and reliability of GWR technology.

Selecting the best level measurement technology for an application can be a challenge. Share your project requirements and concerns with a process instrumentation specialist, combining your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop effective solutions.

7 Reason to Choose Full Flanged, Full Port, Wafer Style Valves

Abstracted from an article by Robert Donnelly of Flo-Tite.
  1. Space Savings - Shorter in width than a standard flanged ball valve, the wafer-style ball valve
    Full Flanged, Full Port, Wafer Style Valve
    Flo-Tite Kompact Series Valve
    is ideal for skid systems or any application where space is an issue. Ideal for under tanks too.
  2. Lower Torques - With less torque than other con­ventional full-port valves, the wafer valve can be automated by smaller actuators with smaller universal mounting kits.
  3. Less Weight - The wafer valve weigh­s about 30% less than full-port flanged ball valves.
  4. One Piece Body - If steam jacketing is required, the jackets cost much less than two-piece bolt-on types. 
  5. Pocket-less Design - Many process control engineers will not use ball valves because of the dead space behind the valve ball. The pocket-less design of the wafer valve eliminates that concern.
  6. Easier to modify flanges to meet standards - When equipment made in Europe is sent to U.S. there is often a need to tran­sition from the DIN flange to an ANSI interface to install the equip­ment here. With the wafer valve, it is relatively easy to modify the flanges to mate.
  7. Tapped flanges - Adds to the ease of installation or maintenance as one side of the piping can be re­ moved while the valve is still under pressure.

For more information on Full Flanged, Full Port, Wafer Style Valves contact Piping Specialties, Inc by calling 800-223-1468 or visit

Mogas FlexStream: Rotary Control Technology for Severe Service Applications

Process plants have increased throughput causing operating pressures and flow rates to increase as well. Advanced production techniques demand better equipment and valve performance to handle these severe conditions. FlexStream rotary control technology is designed specifically for severe service conditions, to provide superior velocity control, variable characterization, exceptionally high rangeability, and precision modulation.

Mogas FlexStream
1) Diffusion element splits and aligns the flow.
2) The control element reduces the flow velocity.
Within a compact replaceable trim design, located downstream with a seat, FlexStream technology employs flow paths of different configurations to control flow and pressure drop. First the diffusion element splits and aligns the flow, then the control element reduces the flow velocity through a variable arrangement of torturous flow path. This allows precise pressure let down, and velocity control custom tailored to process conditions. These torturous flow paths consist of a series of right angle turns. Pressure is reduced by directing fluid flow through these right angles, which control kinetic energy and velocity. Pressure drop at each stage is evenly distributed, while the torturous path expands at each right angle to ensure velocities will not be increased. The larger the pressure drop, the more turns are required to control velocity.

For applications requiring high rangeability, ideal flow control is available by varying the combination of control area and open area, within the trim. The control area determines the amount of bore filled with multi-stage paths, and is used for higher pressure drop lower flow conditions. The open area determines the amount of unrestricted flow, and is used for lower pressure, drop higher flow conditions. This custom fill characterization can vary from 30 to 100 percent, depending on flow conditions, pressure drop, noise level, and outlet velocity required. Precise process and velocity control are achieved at every stage of valve opening, with exceptionally high rangeability in a single control valve.

For gas and steam applications, extreme noise and vibration are reduced or eliminated. The patented FlexStream technology expands upon the strengths of Mogas quarter turn ball valves to offer application-specific trim engineered for high delta-P applications, replaceable control element design, greater Cv per inch compared to the competition, and a smaller dimensional envelope in a traditional control valve.

Disassembling the Pratt Industrial BF Series Resilient Seated Butterfly Valve

On an earlier video we demonstrated how to assemble the Pratt BF Series butterfly valve. In this video we demonstrate how to DISASSEMBLE the valve.

The Pratt BF Series butterfly valve is the resilient seated butterfly workhorse for these industries:
  • Mining
  • Food/Beverage
  • Power
  • OEM’s
  • Chemical/Pharmaceutical
  • Desalination
  • Petroleum/Oilfield
  • Ultra Pure Water
  • Transportation
  • Marine
  • Irrigation
  • HVAC
Sizes: 2" through 48"
Body: Ductile Iron (65-45-12)
Disc: Ductile Iron Nickle Plated, Ductile Iron Nylon 11, CF8M Stainless Steel, Aluminum Bronze
Stem: 416 S.S. Heat Treated
Resilient Seat: EPDM, Buna-N, Viton
Actuation Options: Worm Gear, Lever, Pneumatic, Electric
Pressure Ratings: 2" – 12" 230psi; 14" – 48" 150psi

• Innovative 3 point connection, tongue andgroove seat allows for higher pressure rating and full Vacuum service
• Unique secondary shaft seals prevent leakage from shaft.
• Two piece shaft design provides maximum strength and a high flow characteristic disc.

For more information, visit or call Piping Specialties at 800-223-1468.

A Great Glossary for Metal Bellows, Metal Expansion Joints, Ball Joints, Alignment Guides, and Strut Joints

Bellows expansion jointHere's a great industry glossary for metal bellows, metal expansion joints, ball joints, alignment guides, and strut joints courtesy of Hyspan:

ANACONDA: A company founded in 1908 known for copper mining and manufactured products made from copper alloys. The manufacturing division was renamed Anamet Industrial and manufactured metal expansion joints, strip wound and corrugated metal hose, Vibration Eliminators®, and OEM products. Anamet Industrial was acquired by Hyspan and these products are manufactured by Hyspan subsidiary, Universal Metal Hose.

ALIGNMENT GUIDE: A devise installed adjacent to expansion joints and along pipe or copper tube runs to maintain alignment. Most alignment guides are a "spider type" which permit axial movement (pipe or tube expansion or contraction) but they are not designed to react the weight of the pipe and media (Support). Refer to Series 9500 alignment guides.

ANCHOR: A structure that reacts pressure thrust and spring forces produced by expansion joints in piping systems generally referred to as a Main Anchor or an Intermediate Anchor.

ANCHOR BASE: An Anchor that is incorporated into the design of an expansion joint which can be a Main Anchor or an Intermediate Anchor.

ANGLE FLANGES: Flanged connections made by rolling structural angle. Commonly used in low pressure ducting. May be drilled and bolted, or edge welded.

ANGULAR ROTATION: The displacement of the longitudinal centerline of a bellows from a straight line into a circular arc. Sometimes confused with torsional rotational - see Torsion.

ANGULAR SPRING RATE: The moment (in.- lbs) per degree of angular displacement required to rotate the ends of a bellows out of plane with the bellows centerline in a circular arc. Normally measured in in.-lbs./degree. The angle is measured as the included angle between the planes of ends.

ASME CODE EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint manufactured to one of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Codes. Requires a code stamp obtained by certification of the manufacturer, and inspection of each product produced by an independent agency. The most common code is Section VIII Division 1 that requires a "U" stamp.

AXIAL DEFLECTION: The longitudinal centerline of the bellows remains straight with the ends parallel and the convoluted length compressed or extended.

AXIAL SPRING RATE: The force required to compress or extend the ends of a bellows with the longitudinal centerline straight and the ends parallel. Normally referred to in lbs./in. The spring rate without consideration of axial displacement is the "theoretical axial elastic spring rate". Bellows may not remain elastic throughout their range of deflection, and as a result the spring rate is reduced for greater deflections. The Working Spring Rate takes deflection into consideration and is commonly used by manufacturers. For a complete discussion see Section C-4 of the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association®

BANDS: In order to increase the thickness of the bellows necks for reinforcement or to facilitate welding, a band or collar can be added. The bands are normally fused to the neck by resistance roll welding or edge welding.

BARCO: A company founded in 1908 to manufacture ball joints for steam distribution from the locomotive to the passenger cars. Later became a family of products. Hyspan acquired some of these products and manufacturers Hyspan Barco Ball Joints , Strut Joints and Vibrasnubs and Venturis.

BELLOWS: The bellows is the flexible element of an expansion joint. Formed metal bellows are made from tubing by the application of internal pressure. The convolutions are formed in parallel planes that are perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the bellows - referred to as annular. The tubing is normally made from sheet or coil that is rolled into a tube and longitudinally welded.

CAMERA CORNER: A corner configuration used for rectangular expansion joints. Convoluted straight sections are meshed together with the convolution root of one side joined to crest of the adjacent side. Can be identified by a beveled corner shape.

CENTER SPOOL: The pipe spool that joins the two bellows elements in
a Double or Dual Expansion Joint or Universal Expansion Joint.

COLD SPRING: Also referred to as Preset. An expansion joint or ball joint is installed displaced axially, laterally or angulated from the manufactured configuration to increase the movement capability, or if the product is designed to deflect from the installed position to the neutral (manufactured) position in operation.

COLLAR: See Bands

COMPENSATOR: When used within the context of this web site, compensator refers to an expansion compensator (Series 8500) which is a specialized type of expansion joint. Compensator is sometimes used when referring to expansion joints in European countries.

CONTROL ROD: Devises normally made from rod or bar installed to limit the travel of each individual bellows in a universal expansion joint to the rated motion. Control rods are not designed to react pressure thrust - see Tie Rods.

CONVOLUTED LENGTH: For practical purposes the convoluted length is measured between the convolution sidewalls at each end of the bellows to allow an actual physical measurement to be made. For analytical purposes the convoluted length is measured between the centers of the radii of the end convolutions.

CONVOLUTED OR CORRUGATED: Each formed shape of the cross section consisting of a root and crest is a convolution or corrugation. With parallel sides the gap at the root and crest are equal, and referred to as "U" shaped. If the inside radii at the root and crest are equal but the gap between the sides is reduced, the cross section has an Ω shape, and is referred to as omega shaped.

CONVOLUTION CREST: The semicircular segment of the convolution at the outside diameter.

CONVOLUTION ROOT: The semicircular segment of the convolution at the inside diameter of the convolution.

COVER: A shield or shroud that covers the outside surface of a bellows to provide protection from mechanical damage or arc strikes. It may also be used to retain external insulation around the bellows, or as a uniform surface for insulation installed on the outside of the cover.

CYCLE LIFE: The cycle life or fatigue life expectancy of a bellows is based on the number of complete pressure and displacement cycles that result in metal failure. The most commonly used method of analysis is included in the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association®; however, when specified there are related methods included in ASME/ANSI B31.3 and ASME Section VIII Division 1.

DESIGN PRESSURE: The pressure specified that is used to design a product. Normally given in conjunction with the design temperature to specify the material properties to be used. The design pressure is normally equal to or greater than the operating or Working Pressure.

DIRECTIONAL ANCHOR: An Anchor that allows movement along one or two axes but provides a structural reaction along the remaining axis (axes).

DOUBLE OR DUAL EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint commonly referred to as a Dual Center Anchor Base Expansion Joint consisting of two bellows joined by a (center) spool that includes an Intermediate Anchor. Required for long pipe runs where the axial movement exceeds the capability of a single joint. Sometimes confused with a Universal Expansion Joint that is primarily designed to absorb lateral offset.

DRIP LEG: Also referred to as a drip pot or mud pot is added to the bottom of the body or stationary portion of an expansion joint in the form of a welding saddle or reinforced saddle to collect condensate and sediment.

EASY WAY: Refers to stresses and motions in rectangular expansion joints which
are perpendicular to the long side of the expansion joint.

EFFECTIVE AREA: The cross-sectional area of the bellows based on the Mean Diameter of the convolutions. This area multiplied by the pressure equals the Pressure Thrust Force (Lbs.).

EQUALIZING RINGS: External rings installed between each convolution of a bellows and at the ends with a cross section that approximates the shape of a compressed convolution. They reinforce the bellows against internal pressure, and limit the movement of each convolution to the rated travel.


EXPANSION JOINT MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION (EJMA)®: An organization of leading manufacturers of metal bellows expansion joints established in 1958 that publishes the Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, the worldwide standard for metal bellows expansion joint design.

EXPANSION JOINT: When used within the context of this web site, expansion joint refers to a metal bellows expansion joint designed to absorb axial, lateral and angular motions in piping systems.

EXTERNAL PRESSURE: Refers to a condition where the highest pressure is on the outside surface of the bellows. This can result from an internal vacuum or designs where the bellows is enclosed in a pressure vessel and externally pressurized (Series 3500 & Series 8500). All metal bellows rated for a pressure greater than 15 psig are suitable for full vacuum service.

EXTERNALLY PRESSURIZED EXPANSION JOINT: Generally refers to a type of expansion joint designed to absorb axial motion that has an enclosed bellows designed with the fluid external to the bellows. Sometimes referred to as an externally pressurized and guided since the design includes integral guides. Refer to Series 3500 expansion joints.

FATIGUE LIFE: See Cycle Life.

FLEX TORQUE: Refers to the moment (ft.-lb.) required to angulate a ball joint as the result of the seal resistance. These values are normally for the breakaway condition.

FLOATING FLANGE: A flange that is not welded. Normally a back up flange for a Lap Joint Stub or a Van Stone.

FLOW DIRECTION: The direction of flow of the fluid in a piping system. May be an important consideration in the design of an expansion joint. Some expansion joint configurations (not all) must be oriented in accordance with the flow direction and include external marking indicating the correct orientation. Systems with bi-directional flow require special consideration.

FLOW LINER: A flow liner is sometimes referred to as an internal sleeve and is designed to isolate the internal surface of the bellows from the impingement of the flowing fluid. It eliminates bellows resonance resulting for the flow induced vibration, and provides a thermal barrier as a result of the stagnant flow between the liner and bellows . Most flow is unidirectional and the liner is welded to the upstream end. The direction of the flow is marked on the exterior of the expansion joint. For bi-directional flow a Telescoping Flow Liner may be recommended.

GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT: Gimbal expansion joints permit angular motion in any plane. They consist of two pairs of hinged connections to a floating ring. They are designed to react the full pressure thrust. When two or three joints are correctly installed in a pipe run they absorb motion in multiple planes by lateral offset.

GRAFOIL®: Name identifying a proprietary formulation consisting of flake graphite and synthetic oil that is used as an injected sealant in Hyspan Perma-Pax Packed Expansion Joints and some Hyspan Barco Ball Joints products.

GROOVED END: A common method of installing expansion joints in fire protection systems and potable water lines. The connection consists of grooved pipe, non-metallic seals and an external clamp. The configuration of the groove is specified by ANSI/AWWA C606-87.

HARD WAY: Refers to stresses and motions in rectangular expansion joints which
are perpendicular to the short side of the expansion joint.

HINGED EXPANSION JOINT: Hinged expansion joints permit angular motion in one plane. The hinges are designed to react the full pressure thrust. When two or three joints are correctly installed in a pipe run they absorb motion in one plane by lateral offset.

HVAC: An abbreviation for Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

INJECTOR: An assembly consisting of a body and a plunger installed on packed expansion joints and packed ball joints designed to inject packing. See Series 6500 Perma-Pax Expansion Joints and Hyspan Barco Ball Joints. The injector may include a valve as added safety when injecting packing.

IN-LINE PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint configuration that is Pressure Balanced that does not require a change in flow direction. Primarily designed for axial travel. Configuration can be internally pressurized as shown in the illustration or externally pressurized.

IN-LINE PRESSURE BALANCED HINGED OR GIMBALED EXPANSION JOINT: Proprietary Hyspan designs that are pressure balanced and permit lateral offset - See In-line Pressure Balanced.

IN-LINE SEISMIC EXPANSION JOINT: A proprietary product manufactured by Hyspan for seismic isolation that is capable of axial, lateral, angular and torsional movements - Series 3500IS.

INTERMEDIATE ANCHOR: An Anchor that reacts the spring force of a metal bellow expansion joint, or the seal resistance force of a packed expansion joint or ball joint. They are not designed to react the Pressure Thrust Force.


INTERNALLY GUIDED EXPANSION JOINT: The inherent design of an externally pressurized expansion joint or a packed expansion joint provides guiding that is integral to the expansion joint. There are other forms of internal guiding such a special flow liner designs. All are suitable for axial travel only.

LAMINATED BELLOWS: Laminated or multi-ply bellows are made by fabricating individual tubes and telescoping them together prior to forming. The maximum pressure, spring rate, and stability pressure are increased in direct proportion to the number of plies. The axial deflection is determined by the individual ply thickness. Multi-ply designs permit a lower spring rate and higher cycle life than a single ply configuration for an equivalent pressure. Multi-ply designs are effective for high pressure bellows, and they are recommended for applications involving vibration or rapid cyclic movement because of the inherent damping provided by the relative movement of the plies.

LAP JOINT END: Consists of a stub end and a lap joint backup flange. The stub end and flange conform to the specifications of ASME/ANSI B16.9 & 16.5 respectively. Normally used when flange hole alignment is an issue or if there is a requirement for a corrosion resistant wetted surface. Bellows or tubing that is flared over a flange face is a Van Stone and normally does not conform to the same specifications.

LATERAL DEFLECTION: The displacement or offset of the ends of the bellows perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline with the ends remaining parallel.

LATERAL SPRING RATE: The force required to displace (offset) the longitudinal centerline of a bellow with the ends parallel. Normally referred to in lbs./in.

LIMIT ROD: Devises normally made from rod or bar installed to limit the travel of an expansion joint to the rated motion. They are designed to react the full pressure thrust in the event of an anchor failure. See also Control Rods and Tie Rods.

MAIN ANCHOR: An Anchor that reacts the combined Pressure Thrust Force and the spring force of a metal bellow expansion joint (spring rate multiplied by displacement) or the seal resistance force of a packed expansion.

MATERIAL THICKNESS: The original thickness of the tubing used to form the bellows. For multi-ply or laminated bellows it is the thickness of the individual plies.

MEAN DIAMETER: The diameter of the bellows convolutions calculated by adding the convolution inside diameter and outside diameter and dividing by two. Used to calculate the bellows Effective Area.

MITERED CORNER: Corner configuration used for rectangular expansion joints. Convoluted straight sections are meshed together and welded at the 45° intersection – similar to a picture frame.

MOTION INDICATORS: A devise added to an expansion joint that is used to indicate the displacement of the expansion joint from the manufactured position.

MULTI-PLY: See Laminated

NDT: Refers to Non-Destructive Testing - liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonic, radiographic and other tests and inspections that do not alter the service life.

NECK: The neck or tangent is the straight tubular segment at each end of the bellows.

NPS: Refers to Nominal Pipe Size. For steel pipe see ANSI B36.10, and ANSI 36.19 for stainless steel pipe. Occasionally referred to as IPS - iron pipe size.

OFF-SET METHOD®: Identifies a method of compensating for pipe movement by utilizing ball joints to absorb the motion by lateral displacement.

OMEGA SHAPED: Refers to a convolution shape with inside radii at the root and crest are equal but the gap between the sides is reduced - see Convoluted or Corrugated.

OPERATING PRESSURE: See Working Pressure

PACKED EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint design that utilizes packing material as a seal - Series 6500. Also referred to as a packed slip expansion joint. Prior to the common usage of metal bellows expansion joints, expansion joints were identified as "packed" and "packless" referring to joints with a bellows seal.

PACKLESS EXPANSION JOINT: Metal bellows expansion joint - See Packed Expansion Joint.

PANTOGRAPH LINKAGE: A scissors like structure installed on a Universal Expansion Joint to equalize the movement of the two bellows elements. The linkage is not designed to react pressure thrust but can be designed to support the weight of the Center Spool that joins the bellows.

PERMA-PAX EXPANSION JOINT: Identifies Hyspan Series 6500 Packed Expansion Joints.

PIPE GUIDE: See Alignment Guide

PLANAR PIPE GUIDE: Limits motion to transverse and angular in one plane. Commonly used in suspended piping systems incorporating ball joints, and hinge and gimbal expansion joints to maintain the piping in plane.

PLATE FLANGES: Bolted flanges made from plate material that generally do not have a hub and are normally flat face (raised face is optional). Commonly made to the inside and outside diameters and drilling of standard flanges such as ASME/ANSI B16.5, DIN and JIS standards. Frequently incorporated into expansion joint designs to save length and incorporate special features such as tie rods.

PLY: Refers to the thickness of the material used to manufacture a bellows. May be a single thickness (one ply) or multi-ply, Laminated.

PRESET: See Cold Spring

PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint design that incorporates a balancing bellows and linkage to internally react the Pressure Thrust Force. Although the external pressure forces are eliminated, there are spring forces resulting from the bellows that must be reacted. See In-Line Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint, In-Line Pressure Balanced Hinged or Gimbaled Expansion Joints and Pressure Balanced Elbow.

PRESSURE BALANCED ELBOW EXPANSION JOINT: A Pressure Balanced Expansion Joint that incorporates a bellows, an elbow (or tee) and a balancing bellows (not in flow) linked by tie rods. If lateral motion is required two bellows are installed and referred to as a Universal Pressure Balanced Elbow.

PRESSURE THRUST FORCE: When the ends of an expansion joint or system are capped and pressurized, there is a resulting force that is equal to the applied pressure times the Effective Area of the bellows element, or the effective area of a packed expansion joint. The only force (internal to the expansion joint) opposing the pressure thrust results from the axial spring force of the bellows or seal resistance of the packing. Bellows spring forces are generally insignificant compared to the pressure thrust and a reaction must be provided. See Pressure Thrust Technical Notes.

PUMP CONNECTOR: A metal bellows assembly or hose assembly designed to isolate pumps and other mechanical equipment from rigid piping. See Series 4500 Braided Pump Connectors and Series 5500 Bellows Pump Connectors.

PURGE CONNECTIONS: A connection to an expansion joint to introduce external fluids (normally steam or air) to prevent solids from collecting between the Flow Liner and bellows inside surface.

REDUNDANT PLY: As a safety measure, a bellows can be designed with two plies with each ply capable of meeting the service conditions. The outer ply is considered to be redundant (at least if the inner ply doesn't fail). The technique is normally combined with a method of testing for failure of the inner ply - see Testable Bellows.

REFRIGERATION CONNECTOR: A special type of braided metal hose used for refrigeration service. Must be internally cleaned to refrigeration system standards. Hyspan Anaconda Vibration Eliminators ® are manufactured for this application.

REINFORCED BELLOWS: Metal bellows configurations that have external devises (normally rings) that reinforce the bellows against internal pressure. They can have the added benefit of equalizing the movement of the individual convolutions. Common methods are Equalizing Rings, circular cross section rings and "T" shape fabricated rings.

RETAINER: A component of Hyspan Barco Ball Joints that retains the ball and seals. Threaded design through 2” NPS, flanged design 2-1/2” NPS and over. Allows disassembly of the ball joint for maintenance.

SEAL RESISTANCE FORCE: Force resulting from the resistance created by the seals of a packed expansion joint (Series 6500) or ball joint (Hyspan Barco Ball Joints).

SERVICE PORT: An opening in the body or stationary portion of an expansion joint in the form of a welding saddle or reinforced nozzle to provide a branch connection.

SHIPPING DEVICES: Often referred to as shipping bars. They are installed on most metal bellows expansion joints to maintain the factory configuration during shipping and installation. They must be removed after installation and prior to pressure testing - they are not designed to react pressure thrust. Hyspan shipping bars are painted yellow and labeled. They are not to be confused with Tie Rods or Control Rods which remain installed in service.

SHROUD: See Cover

SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint with a single bellows element.

SLOTTED HINGES: A Hinged Expansion Joint that permits angular motion in one plane but does not react pressure thrust. The purpose of the hinge is to support the weight of the Center Spool in a dual or double hinge arrangement. Tie Rods are commonly added to react the pressure thrust.

SPRING RATE: General reference to the spring constant of a metal bellows - refer to Axial Spring Rate, Lateral Spring Rate and Angular Spring Rate.

SQUIRM PRESSURE: Internally pressurized bellows become unstable at a critical or squirm pressure. Bellows that are long relative to their diameter tend to buckle much like a long column under compression. Another type of squirm referred to as in-plane occurs when the individual convolutions deviate from parallel planes. Either condition represents the maximum pressure capability of the bellows, and failure will occur if the pressure is increased.


STRUT JOINT: An assembly designed to brace or stabilize tanks, vessels, piping and other equipment against external loading such as wind loads and seismic events. An assembly with two strut joints separated by a spool allows lateral and angular movement but is rigid axially. Also referred to as a flexible strut joint. When used with a Vibrasnub allows gradual axial motion and absorbs shock and vibration.

SUPPORT: A devise designed to react the weight of pipe, components and the media of pipe runs.

SWEAT END: Refers to an overlapping or telescoping end connection that is joined by soldering or brazing. Commonly used with copper tube.


TELESCOPING FLOW LINER: A Flow Liner that is made in two parts that are telescoped together and welded at both ends of the expansion joint with the free ends in the center. Commonly used for bi-directional flow.

TEST PRESSURE: Expansion joints are leak tested to establish that they are leak tight, and /or proof tested to determined that they can be safely pressurized at the operating conditions. There are many methods of testing but the most common method is a hydrostatic test to 1½ times the Design Pressure. Test conditions should replicate operating conditions and test structural components such as tie rods, hinge and gimbal attachments. In order to be acceptable the expansion joint must be leak tight and not permanently deformed after testing. Expansion joints made the ASME code are tested to a pressure that is adjusted for elevated temperature. Because of the unique properties of a bellows this may not be practical - refer to the applicable code to determine the correct pressure.

TESTABLE BELLOWS: As a safety measure a bellows can be designed with two plies with a test port(s) are installed on the bellows neck that extend into the space between the plies. The pressure is monitored between the plies to detect a leak in the inner ply as an early warning. The most common testable bellows has two ports at opposite ends 180º apart with a screen between the plies. There is a flow test to ensure free flow between the ports.

THINNING: Most bellows are formed by application of internal pressure to a tube with a diameter approximately equal to the final convolution inside diameter. The material is drawn from the length of the tube. As a general rule the original tube length is approximately three times longer than the finished part. Thinning may occur at the Root and Crest of the convolutions depending on the forming method used. The maximum thinning for Hyspan bellows is 5%. Most bellows performance data is based on material parameters in the "as formed" condition.

THERMAL EXPANSION: Most metals expand when they are heated and contract as they are cooled.  This is a property that is unique to each metal and metal alloys which varies for different temperature ranges.  For piping the ASME has established values for this property, coefficients of thermal expansion, which have been used to calculate the linear expansion of commonly used pipe materials – Thermal Expansion of Materials

TIE ROD: Devises, usually rods or assemblies made from rod and pipe whose primary function is to react the full Pressure Thrust at operating and test conditions, and to allow lateral offset. They can also function as limit stops to prevent over travel of the individual bellows elements of a universal expansion joint, and to stabilize the center spool of a universal expansion joint.

TIED UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT: A Universal Expansion Joint with tie rods that is designed to absorb lateral movement in all planes.

TOROIDAL BELLOWS: A bellows with a toroidal shaped cross section designed primarily for high pressure applications.

TORSION: A moment (in.-lb.) or displacement around the longitudinal centerline of the bellows - twisting. Although bellows can react a limited amount of torsion they are not designed for torsional displacement, or to react torsional moments. Should not be confused with Angular Rotation.

UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT: An expansion joint configuration consisting of two bellows elements joined by a Center Spool. A universal expansion joint will absorb lateral motion in all planes, axial and angular motion but is limited to low pressure because of instability without tie rods or other structural components. Most commonly used as a Tied Universal Expansion Joint.

UNREINFORCED: Refers to a bellows that does not require external Reinforcement for support.

VAN STONE: A coined word or phrase (sometimes one word) that refers to a bellows Neck or a tube that is rolled over the face of a flange. This produces a floating flange and is often used to provide a corrosion resistance wetted surface and compensates for flange hole misalignment. It should not be confused with Lap Joint End, and because of manufacturing limitations the outside diameter of the van stone is not necessarily the same as the raise face of a flange.

V-FLEX: Identifies a Hyspan metal hose product consisting of two flexible hoses at 45º joined by a 90º elbow. Designed primarily for seismic isolation of small diameter piping. See V-Flex.

VIBRASNUB: Identifies a Hyspan product designed to brace large piping, vessels and tanks while absorbing shock and vibration when used in conjunction with Strut Joints. See Hyspan Barco Flexible Strut Joints and Vibrasnubs.

VIBRATION ELIMINATOR: A name that identifies the Anaconda Vibration Eliminator® manufactured by Hyspan. See Refrigeration Connector.

WELDED BELLOWS: Bellows made from flat or shaped disks that are welded together at the root an crest of the convolutions. They are commonly used for scientific and instrumentation applications. Prior to improvements in bellows forming techniques they were used for industrial applications.

WORKING PRESSURE: The system pressure during normal operation. See Design Pressure.

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