Showing posts with label Maine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Maine. Show all posts

Industrial Refractometers

Industrial Refractometers

Refractometry, a mixture of physics, material science, and chemistry, is a method that calculates the composition of known substances by measuring their respective refractive index (RI). The refractometer determines dissolved solids' concentration by making an optical measurement of a solution's refractive index (nD). The refractometer measures the refractive index nD and the temperature of the process medium. The calculation is based on the refraction of light in the process medium, called the critical angle of refraction, using a yellow LED light source with the same wavelength (580 nm) as the sodium D line (thus nD). In most solutions, the concentration of solute in a solvent can be determined by measuring the refractive index nD. The relation between the refractive index and the concentration depends on the solvent and solute, temperature, and wavelength.


Typical examples of industrial refractometry uses are:


  • The calculation of the salinity of water to assess its drinkability.
  • The analysis of dissolved solids in liquor production in pulp and paper production.
  • The assessment of sugar content ratios for food products and beverages.
  • The understanding of the hydrocarbon content of motor fuels. 


These are just a few examples. There are many more common industrial uses for industrial inline refractometers and thousands of unidentified potential applications. 


To discuss your application for refractometers in New England, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. / PSI. 


Piping Specialties / PSI Controls

800-223-1468

Level Measurement Solutions for Water Treatment

Level Measurement Solutions for Water Treatment

Several functional level measurement technologies have viable solutions for a broad range of industrial and municipal water treatment applications. Because of the variety of applications that exist and the varying application conditions, no one technology is best suited in all cases. 

POINT LEVEL VERSUS CONTINUOUS LEVEL INSTRUMENTS

Regardless of the application, there are two significant classifications of level measurement instrumentation: point level and continuous level measurement.

Point Level (On/Off) measurement indicates the absence or presence of level at a certain threshold (point) within a vessel.  Point-level switches perform as high level and spill prevention alarms, low level, pump protection alarms and pump control.

Continuous Level (Proportional) measurement indicates the level in a vessel over the full span of capacity.  These devices perform as process control as well as inventory control and management.

LEVEL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY CHOICES

The technologies used to measure level are affected differently by the varying process conditions. Below is a brief description of the different technologies commonly used in a water treatment facility.

RF ADMITTANCE/CAPACITANCE
RF Admittance/Capacitance employs a radio frequency signal and monitors for a change in capacitance. Either the presence or absence of material or how much material is in contact with the sensor, making it highly versatile and a right choice for a wide range of conditions and materials for point or continuous level measurement.

RADAR
Radar utilizes either Pulsed Wave or Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) through-air transmission that allows for an accurate non-contact reading of reflected electromagnetic signals.

MAGNETOSTRICTIVE
Magnetostrictive uses an electric pulse from ferromagnetic wire to accurately detect a float's position with embedded magnets.  As the pulse intersects the float's magnetic field, a second pulse reflects an electric circuit that accurately determines the distance and thus the level position.

CONDUCTIVITY SWITCHES
Conductivity switches measure the drop-in resistance when a conductive liquid contacts with two probes or a probe and a vessel wall.

ULTRASONIC (POINT LEVEL)
Ultrasonic (Point Level) measurement electronically resonates a crystal at a fixed frequency to generate sound waves that travel across an air gap to a second crystal.  As liquid fills the gap between the two crystals, the second crystal begins to resonate with the first.

ULTRASONIC (CONTINUOUS LEVEL)
Ultrasonic (Continuous Level) measurement uses a transmitter to generate an ultrasonic pulse and measures the time it takes for a reflected signal to return to the transducer to determine a liquid level.

GUIDED WAVE RADAR (GWR)
Guided Wave Radar (GWR) utilizes a Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique by sending a highly focused electronic signal down a metallic rod or flexible cable waveguide. When the transmitted signal intersects the liquid's surface, it reflects along the rod or cable to determine the distance traveled. The level position is then easily inferred.

HYDROSTATIC
Hydrostatic measurement immerses a pressure transmitter with a sensing diaphragm and a sealed electronic circuitry that transmits an analog signal proportional to the liquid level above the sensor.

FLOAT SWITCHES
Float switches rely on a low-density float mounted in a vessel that magnetically couples to a limit switch. A change in fluid height actuates a switch by moving the float.

VIBRATION/TUNING FORK
The Vibration/Tuning fork is piezoelectrically energized and vibrates at a frequency of approximately 1200Hz, and as the process media cover the fork, the frequency shifts. The internal oscillator the frequency shift by and converts it into a switching command.

POINT LEVEL SOLUTIONS

Advanced RF Admittance/Capacitance point level devices are the most versatile of the point level technologies, especially with process media that can coat the sensor. They provide excellent spill/overfill protection. They are simple to install and have no moving parts, making them virtually maintenance-free. Their robust design and circuitry make them an ideal solution for many water treatment applications.

Both tuning forks and ultrasonic gap switches provide reliable high- or low-level measurements in various applications. For non-coating conductive liquids, conductivity switches provide economic priced measurement while float switches appear in many basic applications at very cost-effective prices.

CONTINUOUS LEVEL SOLUTIONS

Mechanical systems such as floats and bubblers require extensive maintenance and are less reliable and accurate than electronic systems. Hydrostatic systems afford better reliability and are simple to use, and can transmit data to another receiver for remote monitoring, recording, and control.

RF Admittance/Capacitance level is a time-proven and one of the best available technologies for indication and control. RF technology inherently provides the highest accuracy and repeatability in interface measurements. Variations in the makeup of upper and lower phases of a liquid have no appreciable effect on system accuracy. Recalibration is not required.

For short-span measurements, RF Admittance technology provides one of the most preferred readings. As the level of measurement span decreases, the more appropriate RF technology becomes. In spans of only a few inches, RF systems can repeatedly produce accuracies of 1/32ths of an inch. RF has the added benefit of not being limited by “dead zones” inherent with many popular technologies often selected for measurement ranges larger than 5 feet.

Non-metallic tanks pose no technical problems for Ultrasonic, Magnetostrictive, Hydrostatic Pressure, Radar, and GWR (Guided Wave Radar) technologies. The GWR approach is suitable for vessels with internal obstructions and uses lower energy levels than airborne radar technologies. Non-contact technologies, such as Radar and Ultrasonic, can have measurement ranges up to 130 feet. 

For long-range measurements or headroom limitations, flexible sensors offer insertion lengths up to several hundred feet for Hydrostatic Pressure and RF Admittance technology products. Loop-powered GWR (TDR)-based products allow measurement ranges up to 115 feet in selected applications. Magnetostrictive technology provides an accuracy of 0.1% of measurement span in flexible sensor designs up to a maximum range of 70 feet.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls
800-223-1468

Sizing Calculator for LINK-SEAL® Elastomer Sealing System Available

Sizing Calculator for LINK-SEAL®

LINK-SEAL® modular seals are the premier method for permanently sealing pipes of any size passing through walls, floors, and ceilings. As they pass through barriers, any cylindrical object becomes quickly and persistently secured by the patented Link-Seal® modular seal design.

LINK-SEAL® withstand hydrostatic testing up to 20 PSIG (40 feet of static head) and is used on plastic, metal, and concrete pipes. Electrical and telecommunications cables are sealed within conduit as they enter vaults or utility holes. Link-Seal® also closes the annular space between carrier pipes passing through casings against the entry of water, soil, or backfill material. 

LINK-SEAL® provides a handy calculator to assist in sizing and choosing your LINK-SEAL® sealing system. You can find the calculator here.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls
800-223-1468

Valve Positioners

Valve Positioners

Valve positioners control a valve's position (ball, butterfly, and globe) such that a given process will achieve specific desired flow parameters. They perform this by determining the error between the optimum valve position and actual valve position. With specialized sensors mounted on the valve stem or actuator shaft, these sensors compare the magnitude of error between the setpoint from the control system and the actual process value. The positioner's corrective output is sent electrically or pneumatically to a valve actuator, which moves the valve in the corrective direction. 

As a control valve accessory and the interface between the control system and valves, positioners play a vital role in ensuring the process loop's performance. The valve positioner adjusts the valves' opening, thereby varying the valve's flow rates, from completely shut or wide open to anywhere in between. An example of this type of positioning control will include mixing hot and cold water to achieve a specified downstream temperature requirement. By controlling the valve's opening and closing, process control parameters such as flow, pressure, level, and temperature are maintained

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls offers a full range of positioning equipment, including pneumatic, electro-pneumatic, intrinsically safe, explosion-proof, and Smart type positioners.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls
800-223-1468

Level Measurement for Water in Sewage Pools

Level Measurement for Water in Sewage Pools

This application takes place at a large power plant well known for its "Green Approach" and it's commitment to ensuring a clean and healthy atmosphere in and around the plant. 

The branched sewer system of the power plant requires instant maintenance and control. The plant uses water to operate the turbine. This water and other wastes move to the city’s wastewater treatment plant through the sewage system.

Some of the sewers are dispersed in remote locations around the plant, making it difficult for personal maintenance personnel to approach and repair damage on time. Plant technicians were looking for a solution to control the sewers better and avoid cases where wastewater might overflow. 

The sewage pool readings had to be transmitted to the central DCS because the sewage system connects to a central control room. The plant needed a 24/7 watch and an on-site guard to gain maximum control over those sewers. 

Technicians also stressed that wastewater flooding was inevitable because it takes time for the equipment to handle blockages. This flooding has caused severe damage to the environment. It was essential to control the wastewater level in the sewers to avoid cases such as these from reappearing. 

The Drexelbrook Usonic - The Solution 

After a lengthy examination of several possibilities, the plant decided to install two Drexelbrook USonic systems in its sewage pools. The ability of USonic to produce non-contact, continuous, and accurate readings of the water level in the pools gave the engineers of the plant a clear picture of the pools' status. 

Its compact size and integral construction simplify its installation, offering an efficient solution in no time at all. The USonic had no problem providing 12ft water level readings with a measurement range of up to 30 ft.  It can map obstacles in the pool and memorize interfering signals with its scan distance function. 

The USonic was linked to the central control system via 4-20mA, allowing the plant engineers to control the water level in the sewers constantly. The engineers know that the sewers would maintain the correct water level, and the system would be alerted in an emergency. 

Summary

The two USonic systems installed in the power plant give complete control over the sewers' water level to the plant's engineers. The systems' ability to display continuous level readings around the clock improved maintenance crews handle the sewage system.

To detect sudden blockages and avoid environmental damage on time, they can now save time. The plant received an immediate return on investment due to its compact size and reduced price.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls
800-223-1468

Key SIL (Safety Integrity Levels) Terms

Safety Integrity Levels

The global value of SIL (Safety Integrity Levels) to the process industries has increased significantly over the years. For many companies, SIL is still an elusive term sometimes misunderstood and implemented incorrectly. To fully understand SIL and its consequences, it is essential to comprehend the necessary words, acronyms, and phrases often used and how they relate to the pursuit of functional safety.  The following are some of the most commonly used:

Dangerous failure

Failure with the potential to bring the safety instrumented system into a dangerous or non‐functional state.

FMEDA

Failure Modes Effects and Diagnostic Analysis

HFT

Hardware Fault Tolerance, ability of a hardware to continue to perform a required function in the presence of faults or errors.

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failures

PFD

Probability of Failure on Demand, Probability of hazardous failures for a safety function on demand.

Safety Function

The ability of a system to carry out actions necessary to maintain a defined safe state for a process, equipment, or a plant.

Safety‐Related System

A safety‐related system performs the safety functions that are required to maintain a safe condition (for example, a flow meter, a burner, and a PLC).

SFF 

Safe Failure Fraction, percentage of failures that do not have the potential to put the safety‐related system in a hazardous state.

SIL

Safety Integrity Level, IEC 61508 defines four Safety Integrity Levels (SIL1 through SIL4). Each level corresponds to a level of probability for the failure of a safety function.

SIS 

Safety Instrumented System, implementation of one or more safety instrumented functions.


Piping Specialties / PSI Controls
800-223-1468

Terms and definitions courtesy of Kurz Instruments

The Operation of the Cash Valve B Series, Type E-55, Type PBE-1, Type PBE-2, and Type PBE-5

Cash Valve is a leading manufacturer of pressure regulating and back pressure valves offering products for steam, air/gas, liquid, and cryogenic applications. Products range in size from 1/8" - 2" for threaded NPT connections and up through 6 inches for flanged configurations. Temperatures range between cryogenic up through 800°F, and materials of construction are offered with iron, brass, bronze, carbon and stainless steel depending on your application.

For more information about Cash Valve, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. by calling 800-223-1468 or by visiting their web site at https://psi-team.com

A Free Technical Paper Explaining Refractive Index

Refractive Index

Refractive index measurement is a measurement of the speed of light in a medium. The speed of light (usually denoted by c) is 299 792 458 m/s in a vacuum. In other media, the speed of light is lower, and the refractive index (R.I.) of a medium is how much slower the light's speed is in the medium.

The detection of liquid concentrations by optical means is not new. The law of refraction was mathematically formulated first by Ibn Sahl in 984 but not known in Europe. Instead, its discovery misattribution goes to the Dutch astronomer and mathematician Willebrord Snellius (Snell), who rediscovered the law and published it in 1621. The first laboratory instrument to accurately measure liquids' refractive index was developed by Ernst Abbe in 1874.

This technical paper, courtesy of Vaisala K-Patents, is a technical explanation and understanding of the refractive index.

For more information about industrial refractometers, contact Piping Specialties / PSI Controls by calling 800-223-1468 or by visiting their web site at https://psi-team.com.


A-T Controls Industrial Valve, Actuator and Controls Product Overview

A-T Controls in New England

A-T Controls is a global leader in the design, manufacturing, and sale of manual & automated process valves for all types of industries. A-T Controls is known for its extensive inventory and highly experienced staff that enable them to provide the customer solutions needed to fulfill most valve and actuator requirements while offering both a competitive price and the fastest turnaround in the industry.

A-T Controls products provide high-performance operation in virtually every industry, including Oil & Gas, Refining, Petrochemical, Chemical Processing, Pulp & Paper, Mining, Transportation, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceuticals, Marine, HVAC, Power, and more.

A-T Controls Products Include:

High Performance Butterfly Valves; Resilient Seated Butterfly Valves; Trunnion Mounted Ball Valves; Pig Valve Dual Valve; Isolation Valve Assemblies; Cryogenic Ball Valves; Lined Ball Valves; Tank Bottom Valves; Electric Actuators; Spring Return Electric Actuators; Fail Safe Electric Actuators; Heavy Duty Actuators; Pneumatic Scotch Yoke Actuators; Pneumatic Rack & Pinion Actuators; 180ยบ Pneumatic Actuators; Stainless Steel Pneumatic Actuators; Declutchable Gear Operators; Gear Operators; Limit Switches; Solenoids; Positioners.

DOWNLOAD THE A-T CONTROLS PRODUCT GUIDE

For more information, contact Piping Specialties, Inc / PSI Controls. Call them at 800-223-1468  of visit their website at https://psi-team.com.

Cost-effective, Non-contact Ultrasonic Level Measurement from Drexelbrook

USonic Level Transmitter

Affordable, 2-Wire Level Transmitter with the performance and features of premium, line-powered systems.

DOWNLOAD THE USONIC DATA SHEET HERE

USonics ultrasonic technology level products from the Drexelbrook family offers a cost-effective two-wire and line powered versions for the non-contact measurement of liquids and slurries for level, distance, volume, and open channel flow.   Level, size, volume, and open-channel flow measurements are easily configured via a menu-driven display.   The USonic level transmitter has a 4-20 mA two-wire HART output signal and is suitable for all Class I Div. 1, Zone, I.S., or explosion-proof locations.

For more information contact PSI Controls / Piping Specialties by calling 800-223-1468 or visit https://psi-team.com.

The Flow Safe F9000 "SurgeFlow" Liquid Surge Relief Valve

Liquid product pipelines must be protected from liquid surges. Surges are caused by pump failure, rapid block valve closing, non-return check valve hard-shutting, emergency shutdown of a tank or loading system, or even a pump coming on or tripping. The magnitude of surge pressures varies, some virtually undetectable to those severe enough to cause significant damage. These propagating waves, either increasing or decreasing rapidly, are commonly known as a transient hydraulic surge of water hammer that can cause severe damage to liquid product pipelines, vessels, flanges, valving, and associated equipment. 

The Flow Safe SurgeFlow series has been developed exclusively for liquid surge protection. These valves are extremely simple and 100% reliable. The dome cavity volume on top of the main valve piston is filled with nitrogen gas to affect the valve's proper set pressure. Dome gas pressure is set according to the characteristic piston seat-to-seal area ratio for the given valve size. This dome load forces the main valve into a closed position using a soft elastomer seat, providing a 100% tight shut-off. When surge pressure is sensed, the SurgeFlow valve piston opens immediately as the liquid fluid force acting under the piston overcomes the force from the dome gas working on the top. The piston continues to lift in proportion to the pressure surge, slightly compressing the dome gas. The closing cycle responds directly to pressure decay in the piping upstream of the SurgeFlow surge relief valve. 

SurgeFlow series valves are designed for accurate and repeatable performance. They will handle both minimum and maximum surge cases when called upon to relieve. Flow Safe suggests all surge relief valves be located nearest the point where maximum pressure can occur in the main pipeline for optimal safety purposes. 

For more information about Flow Safe products in New England, contact Piping Specialties. Call them at 800-223-1468, or visit their website at https://psi-team.com.

Thermal Flowmeters for Wastewater Applications

Kurz Flowmeter for Wastewater Applications

Wastewater treatment plants ( WWTPs) or publicly owned treatment plants (POTWs) must operate 24/7 to satisfy domestic, industrial, and storm drain sources. Sewage treatment includes eliminating pollutants from wastewater and sewage (human waste, animal waste, soaps, and detergents) to create a safe fluid waste stream that can be reintroduced safely into the ecosystem and a solid waste appropriate for reuse (usually as fertilizer). The primary applications for flow meters in wastewater treatment settings measure blower air to each pool in the aeration basin and measure digester gas flow.

Kurz Flowmeter on Digester
The aeration basin is an array of treatment pools containing aerobic bacteria that break down the pools' sewage. A blower adds the necessary dissolved oxygen (DO) to the aerobic bacteria in the aeration basin. Too little oxygen destroys the bacteria, and too much oxygen is expensive; running the aeration blower accounts for up to 60% of all wastewater power consumed.

Digester sewage is called "sludge." When bacteria is added to the digester, the sludge breaks down and releases gas. This digester gas is collected, compressed, it's excess moisture gets removed, and is then cleaned in a scrubber. The cleaned gas is sent to engines or fuel cells for power generation, boiler water heating (for steam or hot water), and excess gas burns off at the flare. Many extensive sewage treatment facilities use digester biogas to operate the plant, minimizing their grid power consumption.

Developing accurate flow rate data allows wastewater treatment facilities to more precisely manage digester production levels, enabling tighter controls on methane levels and flaring. Kurz Instruments provides a handy overview of where thermal flowmeters are applied and provide optimal performance. 

DOWNLOAD THE TECHNICAL PAPER HERE

For more information about applying flowmeters to wastewater applications in New England contact Piping Specialties. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their site at http://psi-team.com.

Thermal Flow Meters for Pulp & Paper Applications

Thermal Flow Meters for Pulp & Paper Applications
Trees used in paper-making go through processing in a de-barker and a chipper, where they reduce to approximately one-inch wood chips. The wood chips are pressure cooked in a digester and become pulp, refined, turned into slush, and screened. Screening drains away liquid, and the resulting pulp is then pressed and dried into the paper. Several steps within the pulp and paper-making process create emissions that must be monitored and reported.

Creating paper pulp relies on a careful balance of low-velocity air flows among the various processes. For example, the recovery boiler following the digester modulates to follow the digester load changes. Additionally, a recovery boiler uses the black liquor's chemical reaction to generate heat for the boiler. It has three airflow systems requiring tight control to create stable air flows.

Kurz Instruments provides a good application note explaining the areas where thermal flow meter uses appear in the pulp and paper production process. You can download the application note below.

DOWNLOAD THE THERMAL FLOW METERS FOR PULP & PAPER APPLICATION NOTE HERE

For more information on instrumentation for pulp and paper mills in New England, contact PSI Controls (Piping Specialties, Inc.). Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at https://psi-team.com.

Ball Valves Used for Black Liquor in Pulping Kraft Process

Black liquor valves

Many toxic, corrosive, and reactive chemicals are used in pulp and paper mills in chemical pulping. This incredibly hostile environment requires well-engineered automatic valve systems and durable valve actuators, spring units, and positioners. 

Suppose you understand how paper is made and what chemicals are usually used in the atmosphere. In that case, you can instantly understand why special consideration is required for valve and actuator selection.

In the early stage of paper production, digesters combine high heat and a heavy alkaline liquid called "white liquor" to convert wood chips into a pulp during separation from wood chips. White liquor (mainly sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide), process water, heat, and pressure are used to separate wood chips into lignin and cellulose fibers. The white liquor breaks down the lignin (the substance that binds the wood fiber together) in wood chips. The resulting combination of water and spent white liquor produces "black liquor." This liquid pulp residue mixture made up of lignin and hemicellulose, and inorganic compounds such as sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide is toxic. Another by-product of this process is Hydrogen Sulfide, a toxic, corrosive, and flammable gas. 

Effects on Ball Valves

In piping and ball valves, managing these process chemicals and by-products is difficult. Pipe diameters range from 2"-10", but the most common sizes are 4", 6" and 8." Usually, these processes are ANSI / ASME Class 150 and ANSI / ASME Class 300, the most common end connection being 150 # and 300 #. Process temperatures are usually high, between 250 ° F and 350 ° F. The valve body and end connection materials are generally 316 stainless steel, but you'll also find carbon steel requested. Applications can include manual lever, gear operators, pneumatic actuators, and electrical actuators in valve assemblies.

The most concerning issue is the sticky molasses-like liquor builds upon the ball valve face and contaminates the back seat spaces, inducing strong internal clearance forces, resulting in valve lock-up over long static periods. A superior ball valve seat design from A-T Controls addresses the viscous material problem.  

A-T Controls developed a solution for this extreme pulp and paper service and black liquor service with notable improvements to their FMS series. This valve incorporates a "scraper seat" feature that eliminates the molasses-like residue baked on the ball's face and eliminates valve lock-up. The addition of Aflas ® o-rings seal the seat cavity from media build-up, and a Venturi hole in the ball is also provided.

Typical black liquor ball valve from A-T Controls:

  • Series: A-T Controls FMS
  • Sizes: ½" -8"
  • Rating: ANSI/ASME Class 150/Class 300 with 150# and 300# flanges, API 607.
  • Ball and Seats: Tungsten Carbide coated metal scraper seats (Aflas® o-rings and Venturi Ball for black liquor service.) 

Please consult a Piping Specialties Applications Engineer for material selection for your black liquor application. This information is a guideline, and customers are solely responsible for construction materials, preparation of the valves for service, and lubricants being compatible with their black liquor application.

For a free consultation, call Piping Specialties at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at https://psi-team.com.

Radar Level Measurement: Comparison of 24 GHz and 80 GHz

Radar level transmitters are among the most accurate technology choices for process level and storage tank applications for continuous level measurement under demanding conditions.  These transmitters utilize Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology that offers superior signal processing capabilities and more reliable measurement than other techniques. The state-of-the-art signal processing capabilities of these transmitters, along with their frequency range, helps to ensure optimum application coverage.

24 GHz radar transmitters cover a broad range of applications, including liquids & solids. 

80 GHz radar transmitters are especially beneficial for level measurements in narrow tanks with internal obstructions due to their small beam angle.

This video, courtesy of AMETEK Drexelbrook, demonstrates many of the other differences between 24 GHz and 80 GHz models of radar level transmitters.

For more information on radar level transmitters in New England, contact PSI Controls (Piping Specialties, Inc.). Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at https://psi-team.com.


MOGAS Valves for Power Generation

Ball Valves Outperform and Outlast the Alternatives

MOGAS is well known throughout the power industry because they solve issues that routinely plague power plants – leaking valves, seat erosion, blown packing, and the inability to isolate critical equipment – all of which contribute to significant heat rate loss and safety concerns.

Download the catalog that explains how MOGAS ball valves:

  • Prevent leaks to atmosphere.
  • Resolves seat erosion.
  • Eliminates valve seizure.
  • Maintains absolute shutoff.
  • Avoids galled seats.

For more information about MOGAS Valves, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit them at https://psi-team.com.

Cash Valve Industrial Regulators for Air, Gas, Steam, Water and Oil Service


Cash Valve is a leading manufacturer of Pressure Regulating and Back Pressure Valves offering products for Steam, Air/Gas, Liquid, and Cryogenic applications.

Get the Cash Valve
Catalog Here
Cash Valve regulators and valves are designed for pressure regulation and back-pressure. They are used for steam, air, gas, liquid, and cryogenic applications. These valves are available in multiple configurations, including a range of materials including iron, brass, bronze, carbon, and stainless steel. Standard sizes from 1/8” to 6” are available with working temperatures from cryogenic ranges to to 800° F. Diaphragms of various elastomers and metal configurations are available, depending on application.

For more information about Cash Valve, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at https://psi-team.com.

Sanitary Process Refractometers for Food, Beverage & Dairy Industries: The Vaisala K-PATENTS PR-43A

Vaisala K-PATENTS® PR-43A Models PR-43-AC, PR-43-AP, PR-43-APT

Vaisala K-PATENTS® Sanitary Process Refractometers PR-43-AC for hygienic installations in small pipe line sizes of 2.5 inch and smaller; PR-43-AP for hygienic installations in large pipes, tanks, cookers, crystallizers and kettles and for higher temperatures up to 150°C (300 °F); and the PR-43-APT for flush mounting installations in cookers, cooling crystallizers and other vessels that have scrapers or mixers.

Sanitary Refractometer Applications:

Extraction, evaporation, brewing, distilling, sugar dissolving, blending, filling. Alcohol, rum, whiskey, brandy, vodka, molasses, liquors, cider, alcoholic beverages, pre-mixed liquors. Beer and malt beverages, wort, cut beer, root beer. Juices, blended vegetable and fruit juices and nectars, still drinks, vegetable and juice concentrates, iced tea and coffee, instant coffee and tea. Soft drinks, energy and sport drinks, beverage base. Wines, grape must.

Sanitary Refractometer 3A Approval:

The Sanitary refractometer PR-43-A is Sanitary 3-A approved to meet the highest hygiene requirements of food production. The 3-A Symbol assures that the Sanitary Refractometer

PR-43-A conforms to 3-A Sanitary Standard Number 46-04 for Refractometers and Energy-Absorbing Optical Sensors for Milk and Milk Products and it has passed the independent Third Party Verification inspection for 3-A Symbol authorization.

For more information about Vaisala K-PATENTS products in New New England, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. / PSI Controls. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at https://psi-team.com.

Anderson Greenwood Instrument Valve Solutions

Anderson Greenwood Instrument Valves
TESCOM Anderson Greenwood Instrumentation serves many industries and applications. The product line includes a comprehensive range of isolation valves (including root and gauge models), instrument manifolds (for pressure, level and flow measurement), and purpose-designed Instrument Enclosure Systems.

Products include:
  • Hand Valves
  • Gauge Valves
  • Primary Isolation Gauge Root Valves
  • Pressure Manifolds
  • Flow and Level Manifolds
  • IntelliMount™ Systems
  • Saddlemount 
  • Keyblok Manifolds 
  • Monoflange
  • Instrument Protection Systems
  • Modular Mounting Systems
  • ACCU-Mount™ Systems

For more information, contact Piping Specialties, Inc / PSI Controls. Call them at 800-223-1468  of visit their website at https://psi-team.com.

Refractometer Application in Kraft (Sulphate) Pulp Process: Digester Washing Zone and Blowline

Refractometer Black Liquor

Introduction

The first operation in the Kraft pulping process involves the extraction of cellulose from wood by dissolving the lignin that binds the fibers together. This is done in a strongly alkaline solution.

This process is known as cooking. After the wood pulp is obtained, it is washed and bleached to obtain the fibrous product.

To optimize the pulp chemical consumption and water usage, the black liquor concentrations have to be measured before and after washing.

Application

Incoming wood is debarked and chipped to an optimal size to minimize fibre damage, and to maximize the impregnation with the cooking liquor. The chips and the cooking liquor are fed into a large vessel known as digester. The pulping reaction takes place under pressure and at a high temperature.

After cooking, the pulp passes through a blow line to the blow tank and then to a washing section. The diffuser washers separate the black liquor from the fibers by washing them with a washing liquor or water. The products from the fiber line are a clean pulp, and a diluted black liquor known as weak liquor.

The washed pulp is then screened before it is sent to the bleaching plant, and the weak black liquor passes from the washing section to the chemical recovery process.

Instrumentation and installation

The K-Patents SAFE-DRIVE Refractometer PR-23-SD measures in real-time the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content in black liquor.

K-Patents PR-23-SD
The K-Patents refractometer is installed in-line in different points after the digester. TDS measurement
in the blow pulp suspension after the digester enables monitoring of the diffuser operation. Together with other measurements (e.g. filtrate and flush liquor) this provides the mill with the ability to control the performance of the washing zone in the digester. In addition, TDS measurement in the blow line allows the performance of the digester to be monitored, ensuring that it yields the correct concentration. The combination of these measurements facilitates continuous calculation of the mass balances of the digester.

The refractometer’s measurement is unaffected by bubbles, particles, consistency, flow, ion changes, pH, temperature, pressure, color or turbulent flow. The measurement surface is periodically cleaned using an integrated and automatic prism cleaning system.

The K-Patents PR-23-SD 

Black liquor concentration measurement with the SAFE-DRIVE process refractometer helps to increase washing efficiency, obtain a consistent pulp quality, reduce bleaching chemical consumption and environmental load, and increase evaporation efficiency.


For more information, contact PSI Controls (Piping Specialties, Inc.). Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at https://psi-team.com.