Showing posts with label New England. Show all posts
Showing posts with label New England. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Inline Process Refractometers in Beer Brewing

Inline Process Refractometers in Beer Brewing

Introduction

PR-43-AThe first step in the beer brewing process is the preparation of malt grains. The extract received fromthe processing of this raw material is called wort. The second step is fermentation by yeast. The last steps are conditioning and final filtration. After filtration, the beer is ready for bottling.

Instrumentation and Installation

Vaisala K-PATENTS® Sanitary Process Refractometer PR-43-A is used at many stages of the brewery process to determine in real-time and accurately the concentration of dissolved solids. The refractometer takes an optical measurement of the refractive index of a solution and its output can be calibrated in Plato, Brix, Balling, gravity or density, depending on the preference of the brewery.
The Sanitary Refractometer is available with 3-A Sanitary and EHEDG certifications and it withstands CIP/SIP cleaning and rinsing of the facilities.

1. Mash tank

Mashing is the process of mixing the crushed malt with very hot water. In this process, the malted grain breaks down to create enzymes, which become active when exposed to water at a specific temperature. These active enzymes convert the starches into sugars. The resultant sugary liquid is known as the wort. Mashing is a crucial step as it determines the final structure of the beer.
In the mashing stage, the refractometer is used to measure the concentration of the mash in water at the outlet pipe to maintain a consistent concentration. Automatic prism wash with steam or high-pressure hot water is recommended for this application.

2. Lauter Tun

Lauter tun is a vessel used to separate the extracted wort from the spent grain. The solids in the lauter tun are rinsed with water to separate the clear liquid wort from the solids. The liquid concentration gradually decreases during the rinsing.
At the lauter tun the refractometer’s output signal is used to detect the shut-off point for rinsing, thus preventing excessive use of water. Automatic prism wash with steam or high-pressure water is recommended for this application.

3. Wort Boiler (Brew Kettle)

In the wort boiler the wort is pasteurized, and its flavor is adjusted by the addition of hops (or other flavors such as ginger or molasses). The brew is boiled until a certain strength or gravity is achieved. This step is essential for the quality of the final beer.
The refractometer is installed directly on the wort boiler to measure the wort strength/gravity. It provides an instant feedback when the wort has reached its required strength. No by-pass arrangements are required. The purpose is to eliminate sampling, optimize the boiling time, and to improve beer consistency and quality. Automatic prism wash with steam or high-pressure water is recommended for this application.

4. Hot Wort from Boiler to Whirlpool

The refractometer is installed in the wort boiler outlet to monitor the quality of the wort. Before the wort goes on to the next stage, solids are removed from the liquid by using a whirlpool. All hops and other solids are forced to the center of the whirlpool. When the whirlpool is stopped, the solids settle at the bottom, forming a fairly solid central cone. The liquid can then be drained off.

5. Chilled Wort from Heat Exchanger

The wort is cooled down to the correct temperature for the yeast. The refractometer is used for quality control, by a way of measuring the cold wort before it enters the fermentation process. This is an alternative measurement to point 4.

6. Fermentation

Fermentation starts when the yeasts are added to the wort. The yeast converts the sugars and amino acids into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The fermenting reaction is slow, and its progress must be monitored to determine the end point.
The spent yeast settles at the bottom of the tank and is frequently removed. This process helps to clarify the beer.
In fermentation, The refractometer continuously detects the changes in refractive index because of the conversion of sugars into alcohol. This allows monitoring the conversion rate, the degree of fermentation and provides an indirect measurement of the alcohol volume (%) for determining the end point (see also application note Alcoholic Fermentation).

7. Filtering

After fermentation, the beer is let to rest, so that the suspended dead yeast settles at the bottom. This conditioning process helps the maturing of the beer. The refractometer provides a quality control measurement for the wort filtering output.

8. Packing and Interface Detection

Packing is typically done by filling the beer into bottles or aluminum cans via a filling machine. Some brewers may use the same filling line for different products. In this case a Clean-In-Place (CIP) operation is required between the filling of each product.

At the filling line, the refractometer instantly detects the product-to-product and product to-CIP cleaning interfaces in bottling. The refractometer output signal can be utilized for quality control monitoring, and to ensure correct product-to-bottle selection and a product quality within specification.

If the same filling station is used for different products, the refractometer can be used for automated monitoring and controlling of the CIP cleaning process, allowing products to be switched freely. This results in increased productivity, without compromising the end product’s quality and safety.

For more information about the use of process refractometers, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. / PSI Controls by calling 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at https://psi-team.com.

Reprinted with permission from Vaisala/K-Patents.


Wednesday, September 25, 2019

MOGAS Valve Selection Guide

For over 40 years MOGAS has designed and manufactured valves exclusively for the severe service market.  No leakage, limited maintenance and superior reliability make a MOGAS valve the easiest and most cost-effective valve to operate. Their portfolio of valve solutions lets you choose the design trim, materials, and coatings that provide your severe service application the best protection.

MOGAS is well-known in the power generation and process industries for solving critical problems that routinely plague these plants: leaking valves; seat erosion; blown packing; and the inability to isolate critical equipment.

Proudly made in the USA, each MOGAS valve carries an application-specific performance guarantee.



Piping Specialties, Inc - PSI Controls
800-223-1468
https://psi-team.com

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Why Use LINK-SEAL®?


LINK-SEAL


LINK-SEAL® is a modular elastomer sealing system that creates a permanent, hydrostatic seal for almost any cylindrical object as it traverses a barrier. The modular LINK-SEAL ® seals are the primary technique for sealing tubes of any size continuously through walls and ceilings. Indeed, any cylinder-shaped item can be secured against water, soil or backfill material rapidly, readily and permanently.

LINK-SEAL® FEATURE AND BENEFITS


    LINK-SEAL
  • Install in up to 75% less time compared to lead-oakum joints, hand-fitted flashings, mastics, or casing boots.
  • Rated at 20 psig (40ft of head), which exceeds the performance requirements of most applications.
  • Designed for use as a permanent seal. Seal elements are specially compounded to resist aging and attack from ozone, sunlight, water, and a wide range of chemicals.
  • Standard fasteners have a two-part zinc dichromate and proprietary corrosion inhibiting coating. Corrosion resistant 316 stainless steel available for maximum corrosion protection.
  • NSF 61 and Factory Mutual Fire Approved materials available. Also carry a wide variety of approvals from various Federal agencies, associations, code groups, laboratories, and organizations.
  • Manufactured in an ISO 9001certified facility.
  • 16 sizes, color-coded EPDM, Nitrile, and Silicone elastomers may be used with various hardware options to match performance characteristics with service conditions.

LINK-SEAL® SPECIFICATIONS

  • Pressure resistant to 20psig (40 ft of head)
  • Standard  — EPDM – rubber (black)
  • Oil Resistant — Nitrile rubber (green)
  • Temperature resistant — Silicone rubber (gray)
  • Low Durometer for fragile pipe — EPDM rubber (blue) Shore 40 ± 5
  • Hardware Options - S316 Stainless Steel and Zinc Dichromate Coated Steel (1470 hr salt spray tested) hardware

LINK-SEAL® APPLICATIONS

Mechanical Contractors - Interior Piping Systems, Manhole Pipe Entry Seals, Waste Treatment Plants, Cased Road Crossings, Thermal Storage Systems, Fire Protection Wall Penetrations, Cased Railroad Crossings, Electrical Isolation of Pipes, Precast Concrete Vault Seals, Insulated Pipe Seals, Dual Containment Seals, Marine Applications, Noise Dampening, Flexible Sign & Pole Supports, Electrical Isolation of Pipe Supports, Mining, Pulp & Paper, Decorative Fountains, Pool Contractors, Electrical Contractors, Waste & Water Treatment, Telecommunications, Valve Pits, Refrigeration Buildings, Guard Post Assemblies, Power Generation Dams, Offshore Oil Rigs, High Pressure Tank Guards, Underground Steel Tanks, Precast Concrete Manufacturers, Perimeter Berm Installations Around Tank Farms, Flow Restrictions in Sewer Maintenance, Fluid Overflow Devices, Noise and Sway Dampener, Through Deck Fire Breaks, Bridge Construction, Septic Tank Installations, Coal Preparation Plants, Tunneling Operations.

For more information on LINK-SEAL® modular wall seals, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their web site at https://psi-team.com.

Sunday, June 30, 2019

US Power Grids, Oil and Gas Industries, and Risk of Hacking


A report released in June, from the security firm Dragos, describes a worrisome development by a hacker group named, “Xenotime” and at least two dangerous oil and gas intrusions and ongoing reconnaissance on United States power grids.

Multiple ICS (Industrial Control Sectors) sectors now face the XENOTIME threat; this means individual verticals – such as oil and gas, manufacturing, or electric – cannot ignore threats to other ICS entities because they are not specifically targeted.

The Dragos researchers have termed this threat proliferation as the world’s most dangerous cyberthreat since an event in 2017 where Xenotime had caused a serious operational outage at a crucial site in the Middle East. 

The fact that concerns cybersecurity experts the most is that this hacking attack was a malware that chose to target the facility safety processes (SIS – safety instrumentation system).

For example, when temperatures in a reactor increase to an unsafe level, an SIS will automatically start a cooling process or immediately close a valve to prevent a safety accident. The SIS safety stems are both hardware and software that combine to protect facilities from life threatening accidents.

At this point, no one is sure who is behind Xenotime. Russia has been connected to one of the critical infrastructure attacks in the Ukraine.  That attack was viewed to be the first hacker related power grid outage.

This is a “Cause for Concern” post that was published by Dragos on June 14, 2019

“While none of the electric utility targeting events has resulted in a known, successful intrusion into victim organizations to date, the persistent attempts, and expansion in scope is cause for definite concern. XENOTIME has successfully compromised several oil and gas environments which demonstrates its ability to do so in other verticals. Specifically, XENOTIME remains one of only four threats (along with ELECTRUM, Sandworm, and the entities responsible for Stuxnet) to execute a deliberate disruptive or destructive attack.

XENOTIME is the only known entity to specifically target safety instrumented systems (SIS) for disruptive or destructive purposes. Electric utility environments are significantly different from oil and gas operations in several aspects, but electric operations still have safety and protection equipment that could be targeted with similar tradecraft. XENOTIME expressing consistent, direct interest in electric utility operations is a cause for deep concern given this adversary’s willingness to compromise process safety – and thus integrity – to fulfill its mission.

XENOTIME’s expansion to another industry vertical is emblematic of an increasingly hostile industrial threat landscape. Most observed XENOTIME activity focuses on initial information gathering and access operations necessary for follow-on ICS intrusion operations. As seen in long-running state-sponsored intrusions into US, UK, and other electric infrastructure, entities are increasingly interested in the fundamentals of ICS operations and displaying all the hallmarks associated with information and access acquisition necessary to conduct future attacks. While Dragos sees no evidence at this time indicating that XENOTIME (or any other activity group, such as ELECTRUM or ALLANITE) is capable of executing a prolonged disruptive or destructive event on electric utility operations, observed activity strongly signals adversary interest in meeting the prerequisites for doing so.”

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Mounting and Adjusting a Rack & Pinion Actuator


A-T Controls is a global leader in the design, manufacturing and sale of manual & automated process valves for all types of industries.

This video details the steps required to mount and adjust a TRIAC rack and pinion actuator to an AT Controls ball valve.

Piping Specialties sells, services, and automates A-T Controls valves and TRIAC actuators in New England.

For more information, contact Piping Specialties by calling 800-223-1468 or visiting https://psi-team.com.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

MOGAS Industries Authorized Valve Automation Center


Piping Specialties, Inc. is an authorized Valve Automation Center for MOGAS Industries, Inc. serving New England and the Northeast U.S.A. MOGAS is the leading manufacturer of severe service ball valves for extreme industrial applications.

Piping Specialties, Inc.
https://psi-team.com
800-223-1468

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Level and Pressure Instrumentation for Pulp & Paper Production

Pulp and paper
Pulp and paper applications create a notoriously harsh, high moisture and chemical-laden environment; coupled with extreme vibration in many of the processes. The following document outlines an array of level, pressure, and position applications and solutions for the pulp & paper industry.

Download a copy of the Measurement Solutions for the Pulp & Paper Industry here.


Piping Specialties, Inc / PSI Controls
800 223-1468
https://psi-team.com

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

An Easy, Permanent Hydrostatic Seal for Cylindrical Objects Passing Through a Barrier

Link-Seal
Looking for a fast, easy and permanent way to run just about any cylindrical object through a wall, ceiling, or bulkhead?

LINK-SEAL® modular seals are considered to be the premier method for permanently sealing pipes of any size passing through walls, floors and ceilings. In fact, any cylindrical object may be quickly, easily and permanently sealed against the entry of water, soil or backfill material.

Features:
  • Install in up to 75% less time compared to lead-oakum joints, hand-fitted flashings, mastics, or casing boots.
  • Rated at 20 psig (40ft of head), which exceeds the performance requirements of most applications.
  • Designed for use as a permanent seal. Seal elements are specially compounded to resist aging and attack from ozone, sunlight, water, and a wide range of chemicals.
  • Standard fasteners have a two-part zinc dichromate and proprietary corrosion inhibiting coating. Corrosion resistant 316 stainless steel available for maximum corrosion protection.
  • NSF 61 and Factory Mutual Fire Approved materials available. Also carry a wide variety of approvals from various Federal agencies, associations, code groups, laboratories, and organizations.
  • Manufactured in an ISO 9001:2000 certified facility.
  • 16 sizes, color-coded EPDM, Nitrile, and Silicone elastomers may be used with various hardware options to match performance characteristics with service conditions.
Watch the video below to see the Link-Seal installation process. For information about Link-Seal, contact Piping Specialties, Inc at 800-223-1468 or by visiting http://www.psi-team.com.