Showing posts with label process refractometer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label process refractometer. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Guide to Industrial Refractometer Applications

Industrial refractometer
Industrial refractometer
(K-Patents)
As a general rule, refractometers measure the concentration of any dissolved material in a liquid. A typical measured medium is a binary solution, but it can also be a mixture of more than two components. In multi-component solutions this is a checksum; if one of the components is wrong, the overall refractive index value changes.

The potential applications in different industries are countless. Although the manufacturing process, environment and processing medium vary from industry to industry, all basic unit operations and control strategies are roughly the same despite of the end product.




Applications discussed in the application guide include:
  • Crystallizers
  • Reactors
  • Evaporation
  • Ultrafiltration
  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Spray Dryers
  • Dissolving Tanks
  • Solid / Liquid Extraction
  • Cooking Processes
  • Ion Exchangers
  • Absorbers and Wet Scrubbers
  • Distillation
  • Interface Detection

For more information about the application of industrial refractometers in manufacturing processes, contact Piping Specialties / PSI Controls by calling 800-223-1468 or by visiting their web site at https://psi-team.com.

Monday, December 3, 2018

Process Refractometers Used in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

recovery boiler
The recovery boiler plays a central role in the chemical cycle of a modern pulp mill. The recovery boiler is a chemical reactor, which is used for recovering chemicals from spent kraft liquor and generating energy at the same time.

In the recovery boiler, the organic matter is burned. The dry solids liquor content required for firing is at least 60 %, but preferably more than 65 %. Black liquor is concentrated by evaporating water from the liquor. When the concentration of black liquor is maximized, so is the energy production. Before entering the burners, sodium sulfate decahydrate, or glauber salt, is added to cover chemical losses.

Application
Black liquor
Chemical curve: R.I. per Black
liquor Conc% at Ref. Temp. of 20 ̊C

The liquor should have a high content of combustible dry solids in order to minimize flue gas emissions and maximize boiler efficiency.

Too low concentration of dry solids fed to the burners may result in a steam explosion with consequent damage or destruction to the boiler. Therefore, it is essential to utilize a refractometer to monitor the black liquor feed to the recovery boiler to ensure a safe operation.

Instrumentation and installation

The K-Patents Digital Divert Control System DD-23 complies strictly with all recommendations of the Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Advisory Committee (BLRBAC).

The DD-23 system includes two SAFE-DRIVE Process Refractometer sensors in the main black liquor line, two indicating transmitters and a divert control unit in an integrated panel.

The sensors are installed using K-Patents patented SAFE-DRIVE Isolation valve. This allows for safe and easy insertion and retraction of the refractometers under full operating pressure, without having to valve off the liquor piping or having to shut down the process. The SAFE-DRIVE Isolation valve contains a steam wash system for automatic prism cleaning. The system contains a SAFE-DRIVE Retractor Tool SDR-23 for safe sensor insertion and retraction.

For more information about refractometers used on blacl liquor recovery boilers, contact Piping Specialties by calling 800-223-1468 or visit https://psi-team.com.

Saturday, June 30, 2018

Best Practices Document for the K-Patents PR-23-SD Safe-Drive™ Process Refractometer

K-Patents PR-23-SD Safe-Drive
This document is intended for individuals installing, commissioning, operating, and/ or servicing the Safe-DriveTM Process Refractometer PR-23-SD, generation 2.1 model. The purpose of this document is to provide a quick guide for the abovementioned tasks in the form of K-Patents recommended best practices.

This document is intended for PR-23-SD applications that have a steam wash system (typical application for black liquor) and applications that have high pressure water wash system (typical application for green liquor).

NOTE: These instructions are for quick reference only. For more thorough guidance, please refer to the K-Patents user manual and documentation that came with your equipment.

Review the embedded document below, or download a PDF version of Safe-Drive™ Process Refractometer PR-23-SD Generation 2.1 Best Practices here.

Monday, May 21, 2018

Refractometer Application for Wet Spinning of Alginate Fibers

Refractometer
Refractometer used for
wet spinning of alginate fiber.
(K-Patents
Alginates are biopolymers extracted from brown algae species such as seaweed. Extraction is performed from the harvested material by treatment with aqueous alkaline solutions. The extract is then filtered and the alginate salt is precipitated by the addition of calcium chloride or an acid. After purification, drying and milling, a water-soluble sodium alginate powder is produced. Alginates have found a variety of uses in different industries because of their unique properties. These materials have been extensively used in pharmaceutical applications as they are gel forming, non-toxic and highly absorbent.

The document below illustrates the use of industrial refractometers in the processing of Sodium Alginate. You can also download the full PDF of "Wet Spinning of Alginate Fibers" here.

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

Industrial Process Refractometers

Process refractometer
Process refractometer
(K-Patents)
The ultimate focus of industrial refractometry is to describe the percentage of certain compounds in a final product. Refractometry, a combination of physics, materials, and chemistry, is the process which measures the composition of known substances by means of calculating their respective refractive indexes (RI). RIs are evaluated via a refractometer, a device which measures the curve, or refraction, resulting when the wavelength of light moves from the air into and through a tested substance. The unitless number given by the refractometer, usually between 1.3000 and 1.7000, is the RI. The composition of substances is then determined when the RI is compared to a standard curve specific to the material of the substance.

Common examples of industrial refractometry uses are measuring the salinity of water to determine drinkability; calculating the dissolved solids in liquor processing in pulp and paper production;  figuring beverages’ ratios of sugar content; and understanding the hydrocarbon content of motor fuels. Regarding pulp and paper, refractometry scrutinizes content of compounds in black and green liquor processing. Regarding food, refractometry has the ability to measure the glucose in fruit during the fermentation process. Because of this, those in food services know when fruit is at peak ripeness and, in turn, also understand the most advantageous point in the fruit’s “lifetime” to put it on the market.

Process Refractometers
Equipment manufacturers have developed numerous refractometer configurations tailored to specific use and application. Each has a set of features making it the proper choice for its intended application. Product specialists can be invaluable sources of information and assistance to potential refractometer users seeking to match the best equipment to their application or process.