Showing posts with label Kurz Instruments. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Kurz Instruments. Show all posts

Kurz Flow Meter Allows Precise, Real-Time Dry Flow Measurements for Landfill Pollution Reporting

Kurz Flow Meter

Landfill gas (LFG) is a natural byproduct of organic material decomposition in landfills. LFG is approximately half methane (natural gas's primary component), half carbon dioxide (CO2), and a small amount of non-methane organic compounds. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that traps heat in the atmosphere 28 to 36 times more effectively than CO2 over a 100-year cycle.

Landfills for municipal solid waste (MSW) are the third-largest source of human-related methane pollution in the United States, accounting for around 15.1 percent of total emissions in 2018.

LFG can be captured, transformed, and used as a renewable energy resource instead of escaping into the air. Using LFG reduces odors and other risks associated with LFG emissions and methane migration into the atmosphere, which contributes to local smog and global climate change. 

A collection of wells and a blower/flare (or vacuum) device remove LFG from landfills. The collected gas moves to a central location where it can be stored and handled, depending on the gas's ultimate use. The gas can be flared or put to good use in an LFG energy project from here.

Because of regulatory requirements, numerous landfills install gas control controls. The federal government has adopted legislation that regulates the use and upkeep of landfills. These rules help eliminate ozone precursors (volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides), methane, NMOCs, and odorous compounds in landfill gas pollution, which harms human health and the environment.

Thermal flow meter technology is known for having a low-pressure drop and is suitable for calculating extremely low flows. On the other hand, standard thermal flow meters do not operate well in condensing gas environments like landfill methane recovery systems. The accuracy issues associated with wet gas flow measurements grow by the unpredictability of moisture levels caused by leachate, rain, temperature, and humidity. 

The Kurz WGF flow meter is perfect for use in wet gas applications. Kurz allows you to quantify gas flow precisely and provide real-time dry flow measurements for pollution reporting (federal, state, local regulations, greenhouse gases, and the Landfill Methane Rule).

For more information about Kurz flow meters in New England, contact Piping Specialties, Inc. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at

Key SIL (Safety Integrity Levels) Terms

Safety Integrity Levels

The global value of SIL (Safety Integrity Levels) to the process industries has increased significantly over the years. For many companies, SIL is still an elusive term sometimes misunderstood and implemented incorrectly. To fully understand SIL and its consequences, it is essential to comprehend the necessary words, acronyms, and phrases often used and how they relate to the pursuit of functional safety.  The following are some of the most commonly used:

Dangerous failure

Failure with the potential to bring the safety instrumented system into a dangerous or non‐functional state.


Failure Modes Effects and Diagnostic Analysis


Hardware Fault Tolerance, ability of a hardware to continue to perform a required function in the presence of faults or errors.


Mean Time Between Failures


Probability of Failure on Demand, Probability of hazardous failures for a safety function on demand.

Safety Function

The ability of a system to carry out actions necessary to maintain a defined safe state for a process, equipment, or a plant.

Safety‐Related System

A safety‐related system performs the safety functions that are required to maintain a safe condition (for example, a flow meter, a burner, and a PLC).


Safe Failure Fraction, percentage of failures that do not have the potential to put the safety‐related system in a hazardous state.


Safety Integrity Level, IEC 61508 defines four Safety Integrity Levels (SIL1 through SIL4). Each level corresponds to a level of probability for the failure of a safety function.


Safety Instrumented System, implementation of one or more safety instrumented functions.

Piping Specialties / PSI Controls

Terms and definitions courtesy of Kurz Instruments

Thermal Flowmeters for Wastewater Applications

Kurz Flowmeter for Wastewater Applications

Wastewater treatment plants ( WWTPs) or publicly owned treatment plants (POTWs) must operate 24/7 to satisfy domestic, industrial, and storm drain sources. Sewage treatment includes eliminating pollutants from wastewater and sewage (human waste, animal waste, soaps, and detergents) to create a safe fluid waste stream that can be reintroduced safely into the ecosystem and a solid waste appropriate for reuse (usually as fertilizer). The primary applications for flow meters in wastewater treatment settings measure blower air to each pool in the aeration basin and measure digester gas flow.

Kurz Flowmeter on Digester
The aeration basin is an array of treatment pools containing aerobic bacteria that break down the pools' sewage. A blower adds the necessary dissolved oxygen (DO) to the aerobic bacteria in the aeration basin. Too little oxygen destroys the bacteria, and too much oxygen is expensive; running the aeration blower accounts for up to 60% of all wastewater power consumed.

Digester sewage is called "sludge." When bacteria is added to the digester, the sludge breaks down and releases gas. This digester gas is collected, compressed, it's excess moisture gets removed, and is then cleaned in a scrubber. The cleaned gas is sent to engines or fuel cells for power generation, boiler water heating (for steam or hot water), and excess gas burns off at the flare. Many extensive sewage treatment facilities use digester biogas to operate the plant, minimizing their grid power consumption.

Developing accurate flow rate data allows wastewater treatment facilities to more precisely manage digester production levels, enabling tighter controls on methane levels and flaring. Kurz Instruments provides a handy overview of where thermal flowmeters are applied and provide optimal performance. 


For more information about applying flowmeters to wastewater applications in New England contact Piping Specialties. Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their site at

Thermal Flow Meters for Pulp & Paper Applications

Thermal Flow Meters for Pulp & Paper Applications
Trees used in paper-making go through processing in a de-barker and a chipper, where they reduce to approximately one-inch wood chips. The wood chips are pressure cooked in a digester and become pulp, refined, turned into slush, and screened. Screening drains away liquid, and the resulting pulp is then pressed and dried into the paper. Several steps within the pulp and paper-making process create emissions that must be monitored and reported.

Creating paper pulp relies on a careful balance of low-velocity air flows among the various processes. For example, the recovery boiler following the digester modulates to follow the digester load changes. Additionally, a recovery boiler uses the black liquor's chemical reaction to generate heat for the boiler. It has three airflow systems requiring tight control to create stable air flows.

Kurz Instruments provides a good application note explaining the areas where thermal flow meter uses appear in the pulp and paper production process. You can download the application note below.


For more information on instrumentation for pulp and paper mills in New England, contact PSI Controls (Piping Specialties, Inc.). Call them at 800-223-1468 or visit their website at